World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Stieng language

Article Id: WHEBN0034701462
Reproduction Date:

Title: Stieng language  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Austroasiatic languages, Mnong language, Nguồn language, Khmer language, Bahnaric languages
Collection: Bahnaric Languages, Languages of Cambodia, Languages of Vietnam
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Stieng language

Native to Vietnam, Cambodia
Ethnicity Stieng people
Native speakers
90,000  (2008 & 2009 censuses)[1][2]
Khmer, Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Either:
sti – Bulo Stieng
stt – Budeh Stieng

Stieng (IPA: , Vietnamese: Xtiêng, Khmer: ស្ទៀង) is the language of the Stieng people of southern Vietnam and adjacent areas of Cambodia. Along with Chrau and Mnong, Stieng is classified as a language of the South Bahnaric grouping of the Mon–Khmer languages within the Austroasiatic language family. In the Austroasiatic scheme, the Bahnaric languages are often cited as being most closely related to the Khmer language.

There are noted dialects of Stieng, some of which may not be mutually intelligible. However, due to the lack of widely available research, this article will primarily describe the dialect known as Bulo Stieng spoken in the provinces of Bình Phước, Lâm Đồng, Tây Ninh in southwestern Vietnam and Kratié (Snuol District) and Mondulkiri provinces in adjacent areas of eastern Cambodia.[3][4] Bulo Stieng is spoken in more remote areas of the mountains and jungles alongside its close relative, Mnong. Other dialects, including Bu Dek and Bu Biek, are spoken in the lowlands and exhibit more influence from Vietnamese.

Unlike many other Mon–Khmer languages, Stieng does not distinguish voice quality, nor is it a tonal language like Vietnamese.[3] Words may be either monosyllabic or sesquisyllabic.



Haupers (1969) analyzes Stieng as having 25 consonant phonemes with three-way contrasts of voiced, unvoiced and pre-glottalized with aspiration described as a consonant cluster involving simple (i.e. not pre-glottalized) stops plus /h/.[3] Analyses which include the aspirated series as independent phonemes yield 33 consonants and a five-way contrast.
Bilabial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive Voiceless p t c k
Voiceless aspirated ʔ
Voiced b d ɟ ɡ
Voiced aspirated ɟʰ ɡʰ
Pre-glottalized ʔb ʔd
Nasal Voiced m n ɲ ŋ
Preglottalized ʔm ʔn
Fricative Voiceless s (ç) h
Approximant Voiced w l r (ɾ) j
Preglottalized ʔl ʔj

Consonants appearing in syllable coda are devoiced and unreleased. For the alveolar approximate, the trilled [r] is found in free variation with the flapped [ɾ]. The voiceless palatal fricative [ç] appears only in syllable coda as a complimentary allophone of [s].


The Stieng vowel system consists of fifteen monophthongs and two diphthongs. In addition to vowel quality, quantitative length (duration) is also phonemic for vowels other than [ɛ] ([æ]) in closed syllables. The vowel [ɛ] ([æ]) is short before h and long elsewhere. This lack of minimal pairs for [ɛ] ([æ]) and [ɛː] ([æː]) suggests that [ɛ], [æ], [ɛː] and [æː] are all allophones.[3]
Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i iə̯ ɨ ɨː u uː uə̯
Close-mid e (ɪ) eː (ɪː)
Open-mid ɛ (æ) ɛː (æː) ʌː ɔː
Open a ɑ

Symbols in parenthesis represent allophonic variations.


  1. ^ General Statistics Office of Vietnam 2009 Census
  2. ^ Cambodian Government National Institute of Statistics 2008 Census
  3. ^ a b c d Haupers, Ralph. "Stieng Phonemes." The Mon-Khmer Studies Journal. 3. (1969): 131-137.
  4. ^ Ethnologue

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.