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Stoic passions

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Title: Stoic passions  
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Stoic passions

Stoic passions are various forms of emotional suffering in Stoicism, a school of Hellenistic philosophy.

Contents

  • Relevance 1
  • Primary passions 2
  • Subdivisions 3
    • Distress 3.1
    • Fear 3.2
    • Lust 3.3
    • Delight 3.4
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Relevance

The passions are transliterated pathê from Greek.[1][2]

Chrysippus thought particularly grief,pleasure, fear and desire were evaluative judgements (according to Groenendijk & de Ruyter - p. 83).[3]

Primary passions

The Stoics named four primary passions. In On Passions, Andronicus reported the Stoic definitions of these passions (trans. Long & Sedley, pg. 411, modified):

Distress
Distress is an irrational contraction, or a fresh opinion that something bad is present, at which people think it right to be depressed.
Fear
Fear is an irrational aversion, or avoidance of an expected danger.
Lust
Lust is an irrational desire, or pursuit of an expected good.
Delight
Delight is an irrational swelling, or a fresh opinion that something good is present, at which people think it right to be elated.

Subdivisions

Numerous subdivisions of the same class are brought under the head of the separate passions. The definitions are those of the translation of Cicero's Tusculan Disputations by J. E. King.

Distress

Envy
Envy is distress incurred by reason of a neighbor's prosperity.
Rivalry
Rivalry is distress, should another be in possession of the object desired and one has to go without it oneself.
Jealousy
Jealousy is distress arising from the fact that the thing one has coveted oneself is in the possession of the other man as well as one's own.
Compassion
Compassion is distress arising from the wretchedness of a neighbor in undeserved suffering.
Anxiety
Anxiety is oppressive distress.
Mourning
Mourning is distress arising from the untimely death of a beloved object.
Sadness
Sadness is tearful distress.
Troubling
Troubling is burdensome distress.
Grief
Grief is torturing distress.
Lamenting
Distress accompanied by wailing.
Depression
Depression is distress accompanied by brooding.
Vexation
Vexation is lasting distress.
Despondency
Despondency is distress without any prospect of amelioration.

Fear

Sluggishness
Sluggishness is fear of ensuing toil.
Shame
Shame is fear of disgrace.
Fright
Fright is paralyzing fear which causes paleness, trembling and chattering of teeth.
Timidity
Timidity is fear of approaching evil.
Consternation
Consternation is fear upsetting the mental balance.
Pusillanimity
Pusillanimity is fear following on the heels of fright like an attendant.
Bewilderment
Bewilderment is fear paralyzing thought.
Faintheartedness
Faintheartedness is lasting fear.

Lust

Anger
Anger is lust of punishing the man who is thought to have inflicted an undeserved injury.
Rage
Rage is anger springing up and suddenly showing itself.
Hatred
Hatred is inveterate anger.
Enmity
Enmity is anger watching as opportunity for revenge.
Wrath
Wrath is anger of greater bitterness conceived in the innermost heart and soul.
Greed
Greed is insatiable lust.
Longing
Longing is lust of beholding someone who is not present.

Delight

Malice
Malice is pleasure derived from a neighbor's evil which brings no advantage to oneself.
Rapture
Rapture is pleasure soothing the soul by charm of the sense of hearing.
Ostentation
Ostentation is pleasure shown in outward demeanor and puffing oneself out extravagantly.

References

  1. ^ Blank, David - "Philodemus"-2.2.4.4.2 On individual ethical topics (c.f. - 5th paragraph) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)(published Wed Apr 10, 2013; substantive revision Mon Aug 4, 2014) [Retrieved 2015-3-15]
  2. ^ Oxford Dictionary - (Oxford University Press)[Retrieved 2015-3-15]
  3. ^ Groenendijk, Leendert F. and de Ruyter, Doret J.(2009) 'Learning from Seneca: a Stoic perspective on the art of living and education', Ethics and Education, 4: 1, 81 — 92 To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/17449640902816277 (alternative URL: here) [Retrieved 2015-3-18]
  • Cicero, Marcus Tullius (1945 c. 1927). Cicero : Tusculan Disputations (Loeb Classical Library, No. 141) 2nd Ed. trans. by J. E. King. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP.
  • Long, A. A., Sedley, D. N. (1987). The Hellenistic Philosophers: vol. 1. translations of the principal sources with philosophical commentary. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

External links

  • The Passions according to the Classical Stoa
  • The Primary Passions
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