World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Straight edge

Article Id: WHEBN0018830689
Reproduction Date:

Title: Straight edge  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of punk rock bands, 0–K, Punk rock, Extreme Rules (2012), Punk subculture, Anarcho-punk
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Straight edge

A straight edge tattoo.

Straight edge (sometimes abbreviated sXe) is a subculture and subgenre of hardcore punk whose adherents refrain from using alcohol, tobacco, and other recreational drugs. It was a direct reaction to the sexual revolution, hedonism, and excess associated with punk rock.[1][2] For some, this extends to refraining from engaging in promiscuous sex, following a vegetarian or vegan diet, and not using caffeine or prescription drugs.[1] The term was adopted from the song "Straight Edge" by the hardcore punk band Minor Threat.[3]

Straight edge emerged amid the mid-1980s hardcore punk scene. Since then, a wide variety of beliefs and ideas have been associated with some members of the movement, including vegetarianism and animal rights.[4][5] While the commonly expressed aspects of the straight edge subculture have been abstinence from alcohol, nicotine, and illegal drugs, there have been considerable variations on how far to take the interpretations of "abstaining from intoxicants" or "living drug free". Disagreements often arise as to the primary reasons for living straight edge. Straight edge politics vary widely, from left-wing and revolutionary to conservative.[6]

In 1999, William Tsitsos wrote that straight edge had gone through three eras since its founding in the early 1980s.[7] Bent edge began as a counter-movement to straight edge by members of the Washington, D.C. hardcore scene who were frustrated by the rigidity and intolerance in the scene.[8] During the youth crew era, which started in the mid-1980s, the influence of music on the straight edge scene was to at an all-time high. By the early 1990s, militant straight edge was a well-known part of the wider punk and DIY scene. In the early to mid-1990s, straight edge spread from the United States to Northern Europe,[9] Eastern Europe,[10] the Middle East,[11] and South America.[12] By the beginning of the 2000s, only small groups of militant straight edge individuals remained.[13]


While some straight edge groups are treated as a "gang" by law enforcement officials,[14] a 2006 study found the vast majority of people who identify as straight edge are nonviolent.[15] While the early Washington, D.C. hardcore punk scene is often praised for its commitment to positive social change, both the youth crew movement of the 1980s and the vegan movement of the 1990s have drawn criticism. Straight edge has often been approached with skepticism, ridicule, and hostility, despite the ideologically less dogmatic and more multifaceted character of contemporary straight edge.[16]


1970s and early 1980s

Minor Threat, who coined the term straight edge

In 1999, William Tsitsos wrote that straight edge had gone through three eras since its founding in the early 1980s.[7] Later analysts have identified another era that has taken place since Tsitsos's writing.[17] Straight edge grew out of hardcore punk in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and was partly characterized by shouted rather than sung vocals.[18] Straight edge individuals of this early era often associated with the original punk ideals such as individualism, disdain for work and school, and live-for-the-moment attitudes.[7]

Straight edge sentiments can be found in songs by the early 1980s band Minor Threat (most explicitly in their song "Straight Edge"),[19] "Keep it Clean" by English punk band The Vibrators, and the 1970s Modern Lovers song "I'm Straight" (which rejected drug use).[20] As one of the few prominent 1970s hard rock icons to explicitly eschew alcohol and drug use, Ted Nugent was also a key influence on the straight edge ideology.[21]

Straight edge started on the East Coast of the United States in Washington D.C., and quickly spread throughout the United States and Canada.[22] By the 1980s, bands on the West Coast, such as America's Hardcore, Stalag 13, Justice League, and Uniform Choice, were gaining popularity. In the early stages of this subculture's history, concerts often consisted of both punk bands and straight edge bands. Circumstances soon changed and the early 1980s would eventually be viewed as the time "before the two scenes separated".[18] Early straight edge bands included Minor Threat, State of Alert, Government Issue, Teen Idles, The Faith, 7 Seconds, SSD, DYS, Negative FX, Cause for Alarm, and The Abused.[3][23][24]

Bent edge

Bent edge began as a counter-movement to straight edge by members of the Washington, D.C. hardcore scene who were frustrated by the rigidity and intolerance in the scene.[8] This idea spread, and on Minor Threat's first tour in 1982, people would come up to the band to identify themselves as bent or curved edge.[25] The counter-movement was short lived and faded away by the end of the 1990s.[26]

Youth crew (mid-1980s)

During the youth crew era, which started in the mid-1980s, the influence of music on the straight edge scene seemed to be at an all-time high. The new branches of straight edge that came about during this era seemed to originate from ideas presented in songs, and many youth crew bands had a strong heavy metal influence.[27] Notable youth crew bands included: Youth of Today,[27] Gorilla Biscuits,[27] Judge, Bold, Chain of Strength, Uniform Choice, and Slapshot.[28]

In the mid-1980s, the band Youth of Today became associated with the straight edge movement, and their song "Youth Crew" expressed a desire to unite the scene into a movement.[29] Vegetarianism became an important theme in straight edge during this era,[30] starting with Youth of Today's 1988 song "No More", which contained lyrics condemning the consumption of meat.[31] This catalyzed a trend towards animal rights and veganism within the straight edge movement that would reach its peak in the 1990s.[30]


By the early 1990s, militant straight edge was a well-known part of the wider punk and DIY scene. However, militant straight edge punks were not known for being tolerant. They displayed outward pride, outspokenness, and showed a willingness to resort to violence in order to promote their subculture.[32] The militant straight edge individual was characterized by being more conservative and less tolerant of homosexuality and abortion.[33] In the mid-1990s, a number of bands advocating social justice, animal liberation, veganism, and straight edge practices leaned towards metal. During the 1990s, the straight edge scene split into factions: hardline[34] and Krishna Consciousness.[35]

Outside the United States

In the early to mid-1990s, straight edge spread from the United States to Northern Europe,[36] Eastern Europe,[37] the Middle East,[38] and South America.[39] Straight edge spread around the world due to the relentless touring of youth crew bands and the ease of ordering records from American record labels via mail.[40]


By the beginning of the 2000s, only small groups of militant straight edge individuals remained.[13] The decline in militant behavior is linked to the lack of a well known straight edge band leading the movement. Contrary to news reports that portrayed straight edge as a gang,[41][42] several studies have shown that straight edge individuals as a whole are mostly peaceful people.[43] In the 2000s, there was a growing amount of tolerance of people who do not follow the straight edge lifestyle by straight edge individuals.[44] In this incarnation of straight edge, the musical styles of the bands involved are more varied, ranging from a youth crew revival style to metalcore to posicore.[13] Straight edge bands from the 2000s include Champion, Down to Nothing, Embrace Today, Have Heart, and Throwdown.[45]

X symbol

Italian straight edge band To Kill performing at a club

The letter X is the most known symbol of straight edge, and is sometimes worn as a marking on the back of both hands, though it can be displayed on other body parts as well. Some followers of straight edge have also incorporated the symbol into clothing and pins. According to a series of interviews by journalist Michael Azerrad, the straight edge X can be traced to the Teen Idles' brief West Coast tour in 1980.[46] The band's members were scheduled to play at San Francisco's Mabuhay Gardens, but when they arrived, club management discovered that they were all under the legal drinking age and would be denied entry to the club. As a compromise, management marked each of the members' hands with a large black X as a warning to the club's staff not to serve alcohol to the band.

Upon returning to Washington, D.C., the band suggested this same system to local clubs as a means to allow teenagers in to see musical performances without being served alcohol.[46] The Teen Idles released a record in 1980 called Minor Disturbance with the cover shot being two hands with black Xs on the back.[3][47] The mark soon became associated with the straight edge lifestyle.[3] It can also be used by drinking establishments to note a patron as under the drinking age, regardless of their views towards drugs and alcohol.

Later bands used the X symbol on album covers and other paraphernalia in a variety of ways. The cover of No Apologies by Judge shows two crossed gavels in the X formation.[48] Other objects that have been used include shovels, baseball bats, and hockey sticks.[48] A variation involving a trio of Xs is often used in flyers and tattoos. It can also be ironic, based on the fact that three Xs was popularized in cartoons and television shows to signify alcohol or poison. Moonshiners used an X to note how many times a particular batch of moonshine ran through the still, adding additional irony.[49] The term is sometimes abbreviated by including an X with the abbreviation of the term "straight edge" to give "sXe".[50] By analogy, hardcore punk is sometimes abbreviated to "hXc".[51]

See also


  1. ^ a b Sutherland, Sam (July 2006). "The Complicated Contradictions of Straight Edge Punk".  
  2. ^ Krist, Josh (22 August 1996). "White Punks on Hope".  
  3. ^ a b c d Cogan 2008, p. 317
  4. ^ Wood 1999, pp. 130–40
  5. ^ Wood 1999, pp. 141–43
  6. ^ Kuhn, Gabriel (2009). Sober Living for the Revolution. PM Press. pp. 13–14. 
  7. ^ a b c Tsitsos 1999
  8. ^ a b Andersen 2003, p. 125
  9. ^ Kuhn 2010, p. 121
  10. ^ Kuhn 2010, p. 132
  11. ^ Kuhn 2010, p. 112
  12. ^ Kuhn 2010, p. 66
  13. ^ a b c Haenfler 2006, pp. 16–17
  14. ^ Writer: David Shadrack Smith. Directors: Jim Gaffey and David Shadrack Smith (9 April 2008). "Inside Straight Edge". Inside. 50 minutes in. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
  15. ^ Wood 2006, pp. 38, 41
  16. ^ Kuhn, Gabriel (2009). Sober Living for the Revolution. PM Press. p. 14. 
  17. ^ Kuhn 2010, pp. 8–9
  18. ^ a b Haenfler 2006, p. 11
  19. ^ Wood 1999, pp. 137–38
  20. ^ Goldfein 1989, p. 18
  21. ^ Henry Rollins reports that he and friend Ian MacKaye (vocalist for Minor Threat) "would read about the Nuge and the thing that really rubbed off on us was the fact that he didn't drink or smoke or do drugs ... [Nugent's performance] was the craziest thing we'd ever seen onstage and here's this guy saying, 'I don't get high.' We thought that was so impressive." (Azerrad 2001, p. 121)
  22. ^ Barlett 2006
  23. ^ Blush 2001, pp. 26–29
  24. ^ Blush 2010, pp. 163–165
  25. ^ Kuhn 2010, p. 37
  26. ^ Mullaney, Jamie L. "All In Time: Age And The Temporality Of Authenticity In The Straight-Edge Music Scene." Journal Of Contemporary Ethnography 41.6 (2012): 611-635. Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 Feb. 2013.
  27. ^ a b c Tsitsos 1999, p. 404
  28. ^ Haenfler 2006, p. 218
  29. ^ Haenfler 2006, p. 12
  30. ^ a b Wood 1999, p. 139
  31. ^ Youth of Today 1988 as cited in Haenfler 2006
  32. ^ Haenfler 2006, p. 88
  33. ^ O'Hara 1999, p. 150
  34. ^ Wood 1999, pp. 140–141
  35. ^ Wood 1999, pp. 143–46
  36. ^ Kuhn 2010, p. 121
  37. ^ Kuhn 2010, p. 132
  38. ^ Kuhn 2010, p. 112
  39. ^ Kuhn 2010, p. 66
  40. ^ Kuhn 2010, pp. 50–52
  41. ^ Wood 2003, pp. 45
  42. ^ Haenfler 2006, p. 91
  43. ^ Wood 2003, p. 46
  44. ^ Wood 2003, pp. 46–47
  45. ^ Haenfler 2006, p. 219
  46. ^ a b Azerrad 2001, p. 127
  47. ^ Azerrad 2001, p. 132
  48. ^ a b Wood 2006, p. 119
  49. ^ Helton & Staudenmeier 2002, p. 445
  50. ^ Haenfler 2006, pp. 4
  51. ^ Hannon 2010, pp. 162

References and bibliography

Further reading

External links

  • A Straight Edge FAQ
  • The Antifa Straight Edge
  • A Straight Edge News Website
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.