Sultanate of bengal

Sultanate of Bengal
শাহী বাংলা


14th century–16th century


Assam, as well as a vassal state in Western Burma (Kingdom of Arakan)
Languages Bengali (official), Persian (official), Arabic
Religion Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism
Government Monarchy
 -  Middle ages 14th century
 -  Early modern 16th century
Currency Tanka
Today part of  Bangladesh

The Bengal Sultanate (Bengali: শাহী বাংলা, Shahi Bangla, Persian: شاه‌ای‌بنگله, Shahi Bangalah) refers to the reign of five short-lived semi-independent Muslim dynasties in Bengal, the eastern deltaic region of the Indian subcontinent, during the Middle Ages. The first Sultan was Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah, who declared independence from the Delhi Sultanate in 1342 and proclaimed himself as the independent Sultan of Bengal in Gaur. Over the course of the next three centuries, rulers of Turkic, Bengali, Arab, Abyssinian and Afghan origins, would rule the sultanate.

The sultanate began to disintegrate after the fall of the Hussain Shahi dynasty in the 16th-century, and was absorbed into the Mughal Empire in 1576.


In 1342, a local warlord, Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah proclaimed himself as monarch of the Kingdom of Lakhnauti. He would go on to consolidate his rule by conquering the other independent kingdoms of Bengal before proclaiming himself as Sultan of Bengal in 1352.

The absorption of Bengal into the Mughal Empire was a gradual process beginning with the defeat of Bengali forces under Sultan Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah by Babur at the battle of Ghaghra.

List of Sultans

Ilyas Shahi dynasty

See Ilyas Shahi dynasty

Muhammad Shahi dynasty

Raja Ganesha kingdom

Muhammad Shahi dynasty

Restored Ilyas Shahi dynasty

See Ilyas Shahi dynasty

Habshi rule

  • Shahzada Barbak (1486–1487)
  • Saifuddin Firuz Shah (1487–1489)
  • Mahmud Shah II (1489–1490)
  • Shamsuddin Muzaffar Shah (1490–1494)

Hussain Shahi dynasty

Bengal Governors under Afghan rule (Sur dynasty) of Delhi Sultanate

  • Sher Shah (r.ruler of Bengal from 1532–1538; ruler of Delhi from 1539–1545)
  • Khidr Khan (r.1538-1541)
  • Qazi Fazilat (r.1541-1545)
  • Muhammad Khan Sur (r.1545-1554 as the Governor of Bengal)
  • Shahbaz Khan (r.1555)

Afghan Muhammad Shahi Dynasty

Karrani Dynasty

Mint towns



Foreign relations

See also


  • The Bengal Sultanate: Politics, Economy and Coins, A.D. 1205-1576, Syed Ejaz Hussain (2003)
  • The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, Richard M. Eaton (1996)
  • Sultans and Mosques: The Early Muslim Architecture of Bangladesh, Perween Hasan (2007)
  • Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the South Philippines, Southern Thailand and Western Burma/Myanmar, Moshe Yegar (2002), Part One: The Muslims of Arakan
  • The Grammar of Sultanate Mosque in Bengal Architecture, Nujaba Binte Kabir (2012)
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