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Uruguay Round

The Uruguay Round was the 8th round of

  • WTO history of the Uruguay Round
  • WTO Final Act of the Uruguay Round

External links

  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c d The Uruguay Round, World Trade Organization
  3. ^
  4. ^ P. Gallagher, The First Ten Years of the WTO, 4
  5. ^ A. Bredimas, International Economic Law, 16
  6. ^ Even after agreement was reached in December 1993, and the Final Act was signed, the effort almost foundered in the US Congress, and the member states engaged in a quarrel for close to a year about who would be the first Director General of the WTO (A.F. Lowenfeld, Preface, ix).
  7. ^ P. Gallagher, The First Ten Years of the WTO, 10
    * Martin-Winters, The Uruguay Round, 2
    *Kay, Adrian and Ackrill, Robert (2009) Institutional Change in the International Governance of Agriculture: A Revised Account, Governance 22.3: 483–506
  8. ^ P. Gallagher, The First Ten Years of the WTO, 4
    * The Uruguay Round, World Trade Organization
  9. ^ Overview: a Navigational Guide, World Trade Organization. For the complete list of "The Uruguay Round Agreements", see WTO legal texts, World Trade Organization, and Urugua Round Agreements, Understandings, Decisions and Declarations,
  10. ^
  11. ^


See also

Groups such as Global Trade Watch also criticize what was negotiated in the Round on intellectual property and industrial tariffs as setting up too many constraints on policy-making and human needs. An article asserts that the developing countries’ lack of experience in WTO negotiations and lack of knowledge of how the developing economies would be affected by what the industrial countries wanted in the WTO new areas; the intensified mercantilist attitude of the GATT/WTO’s major power, the US.; the structure of the WTO that made the GATT tradition of decision by consensus ineffective, so that a country would not preserve the status quo, were the reasons for this imbalance.[11]


One of the achievements of the Uruguay round would be the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture, administered by the WTO, which brings agricultural trade more fully under the GATT. Prior to the Uruguay Round, conditions for agricultural trade were deteriorating with increasing use of subsidies, build-up of stocks, declining world prices and escalating costs of support.[10] It provides for converting quantitative restrictions to tariffs and for a phased reduction of tariffs. The agreement also imposes rules and disciplines on agricultural export subsidies, domestic subsidies, and sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures through the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures

The agreements for the two largest areas under the WTO, goods and services, share a three-part outline:

The GATT still exists as the WTO's umbrella treaty for trade in goods, updated as a result of the Uruguay Round negotiations (a distinction is made between GATT 1994, the updated parts of GATT, and GATT 1947, the original agreement which is still the heart of GATT 1994).[8] The GATT 1994 is not, however, the only legally binding agreement included in the Final Act; a long list of about 60 agreements, annexes, decisions and understandings was adopted. In fact, the agreements fall into a simple structure with six main parts:


[7] It is widely regarded as the most profound institutional reform of the world trading system since the GATT's establishment.[2] The round was supposed to end in December 1990, but the US and

The 1982 Ministerial Declaration identified problems including structural deficiencies, spill-over impacts of certain countries' policies on world trade GATT could not manage. To address these issues, the eighth GATT round (known as the Uruguay Round) was launched in September 1986, in Punta del Este, Uruguay.[4] It was the biggest negotiating mandate on trade ever agreed: the talks were going to extend the trading system into several new areas, notably trade in services and intellectual property, and to reform trade in the sensitive sectors of agriculture and textiles; all the original GATT articles were up for review.[2]


The round was launched in Punta del Este, Uruguay in September 1986, followed by negotiations in Geneva, Brussels, Washington, D.C., and Tokyo, with the 20 agreements finally being signed in Marrakesh—the Marrakesh Agreement—in April 1994.


They also wanted to draft a code to deal with copyright violation and other forms of intellectual property rights.

The main objectives of the Uruguay Round were:



  • Goals 1
  • History 2
    • Background 2.1
  • Achievements 3
  • Criticism 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

The Doha Development Round was the next trade round, beginning in 2001 and still unresolved after missing its official deadline of 2005.[3]


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