World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0013074932
Reproduction Date:

Title: Vimanas  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Early flying machines
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


For other uses, see Vimana (disambiguation).
For the pyramid-shaped roof-towers of south India temple architecture, see Vimanam (tower).

Vimāna is a word with several meanings ranging from temple or palace to mythological flying palaces described in Sanskrit epics.

Etymology and usage

Sanskrit विमान vi-māna literally means "measuring out, traversing" or "having been measured out". It can refer to (ref Monier-Williams[1]):

  • The palace of an emperor or supreme monarch
  • The adytum of a Rama temple, or of any other temple
  • A temple or shrine of a particular form, see Vimanam (tower)
  • From that meaning, "a god's palace"
  • From that meaning Pushpaka or Dandumonara; the flying palace of king Rāvana of Lanka.
  • From that, a chariot of the gods, any mythical self-moving aerial car (sometimes serving as a seat or throne, sometimes self-moving and carrying its occupant through the air; other descriptions make the Vimana more like a house or palace, and one kind is said to be seven stories high).
  • From that, any chariot or vehicle (especially a bier)
  • In medicine, the science of (right) measure or proportion (e.g. of the right relation between the humours of the body, of medicines and remedies etc.)
  • In the Vimanavatthu, a small piece of text used as the inspiration for a Buddhist sermon.
  • In some modern Indian languages like Hindi, vimāna or vimān means "aircraft", for example in the town name Vimanapura (a suburb of Bangalore).

In Sanskrit literature


The predecessors of the flying vimanas of the Sanskrit epics are the flying chariots employed by various gods in the Vedas: the Sun (see Sun chariot) and Indra and several other Vedic deities are transported by flying wheeled chariots depicted to be pulled by animals, usually horses.

The Rigveda does not mention Vimanas, but verses RV 1.164.47-48 have been taken as evidence for the idea of "mechanical birds":

47. kṛṣṇáṃ niyânaṃ hárayaḥ suparṇâ / apó vásānā dívam út patanti
tá âvavṛtran sádanād ṛtásyâd / íd ghṛténa pṛthivî vy ùdyate
48. dvâdaśa pradháyaś cakrám ékaṃ / trîṇi nábhyāni ká u tác ciketa
tásmin sākáṃ triśatâ ná śaṅkávo / 'rpitâḥ ṣaṣṭír ná calācalâsaḥ
"Dark the descent: the birds are golden-coloured; up to the heaven they fly robed in the waters.
Again descend they from the seat of Order, and all the earth is moistened with their fatness."
"Twelve are the fellies, and the wheel is single; three are the naves. What man hath understood it?
Therein are set together spokes three hundred and sixty, which in nowise can be loosened." ("trans." Griffith)

In Swami Dayananda Saraswati's "translation", these verses become:

"jumping into space speedily with a craft using fire and water ... containing twelve stamghas (pillars), one wheel, three machines, 300 pivots, and 60 instruments."[2]

although the 'wheel' is likeliest a metaphorical description of the yearly cycle[original research?] , and '12' and the '360' are likeliest its months and days.[dubious ]


In the Ramayana, the pushpaka ("flowery") vimana of Ravana is described as follows:

"The Pushpaka chariot that resembles the Sun and belongs to my brother was brought by the powerful Ravana; that aerial and excellent chariot going everywhere at will ... that chariot resembling a bright cloud in the sky ... and the King [Rama] got in, and the excellent chariot at the command of the Raghira, rose up into the higher atmosphere.'"[3]

It is the first flying vimana mentioned in Hindu mythology (as distinct from the gods' flying horse-drawn chariots).

Pushpaka was originally made by Vishwakarma for Brahma the Hindu god of creation; later Brahma gifted it to Kubera, the God of wealth, but it was later stolen, along with Lanka, by his half-brother, the demon king Ravana.


One example in the Mahabharata is that the Asura Maya had a Vimana measuring twelve cubits in circumference, with four strong wheels.

The Mahabharata compliments "the all-knowing Yavanas" (sarvajnaa yavanaa), as the creators of the vimanas:[4] The Yavanas, O king, are all-knowing; the Suras are particularly so (sarvajnā yavanā rajan shurāz caiva vishesatah).[5]

Jaina literature

Vimāna-vāsin ('dweller in vimāna') is a class of deities who served the tīrthaṃkara Mahā-vīra.[6] These Vaimānika deities dwell in the Ūrdhva Loka heavens.

According to the Kalpa Sūtra of Bhadra-bāhu, the 24th tīrthaṃkara Mahā-vīra himself emerged out of the great vimāna Puṣpa-uttara;[7] whereas the 22nd tīrthaṃkara Ariṣṭa-nemi emerged out of the great vimāna Aparijita.[8] The tīrthaṃkara-s Abhinandana (4th) and Sumati-nātha (5th) both[9] traveled through the sky in the "Jayanta-vimāna", namely the great vimāna Sarva-artha-siddhi, which was owned by[10] the Jayanta deities; whereas the tīrthaṃkara Dharma-nātha (15th) traveled through the sky in the "Vijaya-vimāna".[11]

A vimāna may be seen in a dream, such as the nalinī-gulma.[12][13]

Vimanas and the Vaimanika Shastra

Main article: Vaimānika Shāstra

The Vaimānika Shāstra is an early 20th-century Sanskrit text on aeronautics, obtained allegedly by mental channeling, about the construction of vimānas, the "chariots of the Gods".

The existence of the text was revealed in 1952 by G. R. Josyer, according to whom it is due to one Pandit Subbaraya Shastry, who dictated it in 1918–1923. A Hindi translation was published in 1959, the Sanskrit text with an English translation in 1973. It has 3000 shlokas in 8 chapters and was attributed by Shastry to Maharishi Bharadvaja,[15] which makes it of purportedly "ancient" origin, and hence it has a certain notability in ancient astronaut theories.

A study by aeronautical and mechanical engineering at Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore in 1974 concluded that the aircraft described in the text were "poor concoctions" and that the author showed complete lack of understanding of aeronautics.[16]

In popular culture

Vimanas have appeared in books, films, internet and games including:

  • Grant Morrison's Vimanarama features vimanas.
  • Vimana is an arcade game from Toaplan wherein the player's ship earns the name.
  • Interstellar propulsion system called "Vimana Drive" is used in the space exploration game Noctis
  • The psy-trance producers Etnica released 'Vimana' in 1997 with samples drawn from the film 'Roswell', which includes references to UFOs and alien life forms.
  • Gouryella, a former trance duo, used Vimana as one of their aliases.
  • In Fate/zero, Archer has a vimana in his arsenal.
  • In The Objective, a US Special Forces ODA searches for vimanas in Afghanistan
  • In the game Deep Labyrinth, the labyrinth is referred to as Vimana by its caretakers.
  • Vimana is briefly referenced in the song "Vi sess utanför" by Swedish hip-hop artist OP.
  • There was a Brazilian progressive rock group (1974–1979) called Vímana (stress on the first syllable) that, in spite of achieving little success, is particularly interesting because three of its former members later became music stars in Brazil: Lobão (drummer), Ritchie (bassist), Lulu Santos (guitarist/vocalist). The band also had in its ranks, for two years (1977/1979), Swiss keyboardist Patrick Moraz, then fresh from Yes. They issued one record, in 1976, and disbanded shortly after finishing recording the second.
  • Michael Scott (Irish author) wrote The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel, a fantasy series that included flying vimanas in the later books.
  • Mainak Dhar wrote Vimana, a fantasy fiction novel.
  • The album Space & Time released in 2000 by the Canadian neo-psychedelic band Orange Alabaster Mushroom features a track called "Aim the Vimana Toward the Dorian Sector".

See also


External links

  • Vymanika Shastra
  • UFOs and Vimanas
  • Los Vimanas (a collection of various texts, partially in Spanish and partially in English)
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.