World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Vlax Romani language

Article Id: WHEBN0003156017
Reproduction Date:

Title: Vlax Romani language  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Romani language, Languages of Poland, Romano-Serbian language, Polish culture during World War II, Ethnic minorities in Poland
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Vlax Romani language

Vlax Romani
Native to Bosnia, Romania, Albania, Hungary; scattered in numerous other states
Native speakers
540,000  (1991–2010)[1]
Indo-European
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-3 rmy
Glottolog vlax1238[2]
}

Vlax Romani is a dialect group of the Romani language. Vlax Romani varieties are spoken mainly in Southeastern Europe by Romani people.[3] Vlax Romani can also be referred to as an independent language[4] or as one dialect of the Romani language. Vlax Romani is the most widely spoken dialect subgroup of the Romani language worldwide. Most Vlax Romani speakers live in Bosnia-Herzegovina (300,000) followed by Romania (241,617), Colombia (4,850)[5] and Albania (60,000).

Name

The language's name is derived from the "Vlachs", a medieval exonym referring to the Romanians, as all the Vlax dialects share an extensive influence from Romanian on vocabulary, phonology and morphology.[6] There have been many waves of migration of Roma out of Romania, some of them being connected to the 19th century abolition of slavery in Romania.[6] This name was coined by British scholar Bernard Gilliat-Smith in his 1915 study on Bulgarian Roma, in which he first divided Roma dialects into Vlax and non-Vlax, based on whether they were influenced by Romanian or not.[6]

Classification

Vlax Romani is classified in two groups: Vlax I, or Northern Vlax (including Kalderash and Lovari), and Vlax II, or Southern Vlax.[3]

Elšík[7] uses this classification and dialect examples (geographical information from Matras [8]):

Sub-group Dialect Place
Ukrainian Vlax Ukraine
Northern Vlax Hungarian Lovari Hungary
Slovak Bougešti Slovakia
Austrian Lovari Austria
Polish Lovari Poland
Norwegian Lovari Norway
Cerhari Hungary
Serbian Kalderaš Serbia
Italian Kalderaš Italy
Russian Kalderaš Russia
Taikon Kalderaš Sweden[9]
American Vlax USA
Southern Vlax Vallachian Romania
Ihtiman Bulgaria (Ihtiman = name of a city)
Gurbet Serbia and Bosnia
Korça Albania (Korça = name of a city)
Italian Xoraxane Italy (Xoraxane means "muslims" in the dialect)
Ajia Varvara Greece (Ajia Varvara = name of a suburb of Athens)

Writing systems

Vlax Romani is written using the Romani orthography, which is a Latin alphabet with several additional characters. In the area of the former Soviet Union it is also written in Cyrillic.

Both "Vlax" and "Romani" terms in reference to Gypsies are modern inventions that create the impression that Gypsies are somehow related to Romanians (or Vlachs/Blachs). In reality, the term Vlach/Blach is attested in Byzantine documents as early as the 7th century A.D. in reference to proto-Romanians, and has no connection to Gypsies, who arrived in Europe around 10th century AD from India. The Gypsy language has Indian origins and is not in any way related to Romanian, Macedonian or any other South East European languages. It is however possible that Gypsies borrowed words from the local European populations in areas where they settled.

References

  1. ^ Vlax Romani at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Vlax Romani". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ a b Norbert Boretzky and Birgit Igla. Kommentierter Dialektatlas des Romani. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag 2004. Teil 1: Vergleich der Dialekte.
  4. ^ Ethnologue report
  5. ^ The Ethnologue report; Ethnologue page on Colombia
  6. ^ a b c Yaron Matras (2002). Romani: A Linguistic Introduction.  
  7. ^ Elšík, Viktor (1999). "Dialect variation in Romani personal pronouns" (PDF). p. 2. Retrieved 17 September 2013. 
  8. ^ Matras, Yaron (2002). Romani: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-02330-0
  9. ^ Hansen, Björn; de Haan, Ferdinand (2009). Modals in the Languages of Europe. Walter de Gruyter: p. 307 ISBN 978-3-11-021920-3.

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.