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Voiced palato-alveolar affricate

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Title: Voiced palato-alveolar affricate  
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Subject: Levantine Arabic phonology, Gimel, Arabic, Modern Hebrew phonology, Standard German phonology
Collection: Affricates, Postalveolar Consonants
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Voiced palato-alveolar affricate

Voiced palato-alveolar affricate
IPA number 104 135
Entity (decimal) d​͡​ʒ
Unicode (hex) U+0064 U+0361 U+0292
X-SAMPA dZ or d_r_jZ
Kirshenbaum dZ

The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with d͡ʒ (formerly the ligature ʤ), or in broad transcription ɟ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA representation is dZ. Alternatives commonly used in linguistic works, particularly in older or American literature, are ǰ, ǧ, ǯ, and . It is familiar to English speakers as the pronunciation of j in jump.

Some scholars use the symbol /d͡ʒ/ to transcribe the laminal variant of the voiced retroflex affricate. In such cases, the voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant is transcribed /d͡ʒʲ/.


  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant affricate 3
    • Features 3.1
    • Occurrence 3.2
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Bibliography 6


Features of the voiced postalveolar affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz аџыр [ad͡ʒər] 'steel' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe джанэ     'dress'
Albanian xham [d͡ʒam] 'glass'
Amharic እን [ɨnd͡ʒəra] 'injera'
Arabic Standard[1] جـرس/jaras [d͡ʒaras] 'bell' In other standards and dialects, corresponds to [ɡ] or [ʒ]. See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] ջուր [d͡ʒuɾ] 'water'
Western ճանճ [d͡ʒɑnd͡ʒ] 'fly'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic jura [d͡ʒuɾ:a] 'big' Used predominantly in Urmia and some Jilu dialects. [g] is used in other varieties.
Azerbaijani ağac [ɑɣɑd͡ʒ] 'tree'
Bengali [d͡ʒɔl] 'water' Contrasts with the aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Berber Kabyle lIran [ld͡ʒiran] 'the neighbors'
Bulgarian джудже [ˈd͡ʒud͡ʒe] 'dwarf'
Chechen джерво / dzhyerwo [d͡ʒjerwo] 'previously married woman'
Chinese Quzhou dialect of Wu [d͡ʒõ] 'Heavy'
Coptic ϫ [d͡ʒe] 'that'
Czech čba [lɛːd͡ʒba] 'treatment' See Czech phonology
English jump [ˈd͡ʒʌmp] 'jump ' See English phonology
Esperanto manĝaĵo [manˈd͡ʒaʒo̞] 'food' See Esperanto phonology
Faroese gestir [ˈd͡ʒɛstɪɹ] 'guests '
French adjonction [ad͡ʒɔ̃ksjɔ̃] 'addition' Rare. See French phonology
[3] იბე [d͡ʒibɛ] 'pocket'
German Standard[4] Dschungel [ˈd͡ʒʊŋəl] 'jungle' Laminal or apico-laminal[4] and strongly labialized.[4] Some speakers may merge it with /t͡ʃ/. See German phonology
Goemai [d͡ʒaːn] 'twins'
Hebrew ג׳וק [d͡ʒuk] 'cockroach' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani जाना / جــانا [d͡ʒɑːnɑː] 'to go' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian lándzsa [laːnd͡ʒɒ] 'spear' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[5] gemma [ˈd͡ʒɛmma] 'gem' See Italian phonology
Indonesian jarak [ˈd͡ʒarak] 'distance'
Kurdish ciger [d͡ʒiɡɛɾ] 'lung'
Kyrgyz жаман [d͡ʒaman] 'bad'
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[7] djèn [d͡ʒɛːn²] 'Eugène'
Lithuanian iaugsmingas [d͡ʒɛʊɡʲsʲˈmʲɪnɡɐs] 'glad' See Lithuanian phonology
Macedonian џемпер [ˈd͡ʒɛmpɛr] 'sweater' See Macedonian phonology
Malay jahat [d͡ʒahat] 'evil'
Manchu ᠵᡠᠸᡝ [d͡ʒuwe] 'two'
Marathi [d͡ʒəj] 'victory' See Marathi phonology
Occitan Languedocien jove [ˈd͡ʒuβe] 'young' See Occitan phonology
Provençal [ˈd͡ʒuve]
Ojibwe ? [iːd͡ʒikiwẽːʔ] 'brother' See Ojibwe phonology
Pashto جــګ [d͡ʒeɡ] 'high'
Persian کُـجــا [kod͡ʒɒ] 'where' See Persian phonology
Polish Gmina Istebna dziwny [ˈd͡ʒivn̪ɘ] 'strange' /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡ʑ/ merge into [d͡ʒ] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /d͡ʒ/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiced retroflex affricate.
Lubawa dialect[8]
Malbork dialect[8]
Ostróda dialect[8]
Warmia dialect[8]
Portuguese Most Brazilian dialects[9] grande [ˈɡɾɐ̃d͡ʒi] 'big' Allophone of /d/ before /i, ĩ/ (including when the vowel is elided) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise.
Most dialects jambalaya [d͡ʒɐ̃bɐˈlajɐ] 'jambalaya' In free variation with /ʒ/ in a few recent loanwords. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian ger [d͡ʒer] 'frost' See Romanian phonology
Sardinian Campidanese géneru [ˈd͡ʒɛneru] 'son-in-law'
Scottish Gaelic Dia [d͡ʒia] 'God' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian Some speakers џем / em [d͡ʒê̞m] 'jam' May be laminal retroflex instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Bosnian ђаво / đavo [d͡ʒâ̠ʋo̞ː] 'devil' Most Croatian and some Bosnian speakers merge /d͡ʒ/ and /d͡ʑ/, either to [d͡ʒ] or laminal [ɖ͡ʐ].
Silesian Gmina Istebna[10] These dialects merge /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡ʑ/ into [d͡ʒ].
Somali joog [d͡ʒoːɡ] 'stop' See Somali phonology
Spanish Many dialects cónyuge [ˈkõ̞ɲd͡ʒuxe̞] 'spouse' May correspond to [ɟʝ] in Castilian Spanish, or be a stigmatized dialectal realization of /ʝ/ and /ʎ/. See Spanish phonology
Some dialects ayudar [ad͡ʒuˈð̞ar] 'to help'
Turkish acı [äˈd͡ʒɯ] 'pain' See Turkish phonology
Turkmen jar [d͡ʒär] 'ravine'
Ubykh [amd͡ʒan] '?' See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian джерело [d͡ʒɛrɛˈlɔ] 'source' See Ukrainian phonology
Uyghur جـوزا [d͡ʒozɑ] 'desk' See Uyghur phonology
West Frisian siedzje [ʃɪd͡ʒǝ] 'to sow'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[11] dxan [d͡ʒaŋ] 'god'

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant affricate

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative


  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is postalveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English General American[12][13] dream [d̠͡ɹ̠˔ʷiːm] 'dream' Phonetic realization of the sequence /dr/; less commonly alveolar [d͡ɹ̝].[12] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[12][13]

See also


  1. ^ Watson (2002:16)
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  3. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  4. ^ a b c Mangold (2005:51–52)
  5. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  6. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". 
  7. ^ Peters (2006:119)
  8. ^ a b c d Dubisz, Karaś & Kolis (1995:62)
  9. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:228)
  10. ^ a b Dąbrowska (2004:?)
  11. ^ Merrill (2008:108)
  12. ^ a b c Gimson (2014), pp. 177, 186–188 and 192.
  13. ^ a b Wells (2008).


  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 227–232,  
  • Dąbrowska, Anna (2004), Język polski, Wrocław: wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie,  
  • Dubisz, Stanisław; Karaś, Halina; Kolis, Nijola (1995), Dialekty i gwary polskie, Warsaw: Wiedza Powszechna,  
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge,  
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114,  
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (1): 117–124,  
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121,  
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264,  
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press 
  • Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman,  
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