General relativity

G_{\mu \nu} + \Lambda g_{\mu \nu}= {8\pi G\over c^4} T_{\mu \nu}




Equations


Formalisms


Advanced theory






In physics, the world line of an object is the path of that object in 4dimensional spacetime, tracing the history of its location in space at each instant in time. The concept of "world line" is distinguished from the concept of "orbit" or "trajectory" (such as an orbit in space or a trajectory of a truck on a road map) by the time dimension, and typically encompasses a large area of spacetime wherein perceptually straight paths are recalculated to show their (relatively) more absolute position states — to reveal the nature of special relativity or gravitational interactions. The idea of world lines originates in physics and was pioneered by Hermann Minkowski. The term is now most often used in relativity theories (i.e., special relativity and general relativity).
However, world lines are a general way of representing the course of events. The use of it is not bound to any specific theory. Thus in general usage, a world line is the sequential path of personal human events (with time and place as dimensions) that marks the history of a person^{[1]} — perhaps starting at the time and place of one's birth until one's death. The log book of a ship is a description of the ship's world line, as long as it contains a time tag attached to every position. The world line allows one to calculate the speed of the ship, given a measure of distance (a socalled metric) appropriate for the curved surface of the Earth.
Contents

Usage in physics 1

World lines as a tool to describe events 2

Trivial examples of spacetime curves 2.1

Tangent vector to a world line, fourvelocity 2.2

World lines in special relativity 3

Simultaneous hyperplane 3.1

World lines in general relativity 4

World lines in literature 5

See also 6

References 7

External links 8
Usage in physics
In physics, a world line of an object (approximated as a point in space, e.g., a particle or observer) is the sequence of spacetime events corresponding to the history of the object. A world line is a special type of curve in spacetime. Below an equivalent definition will be explained: A world line is a timelike curve in spacetime. Each point of a world line is an event that can be labeled with the time and the spatial position of the object at that time.
For example, the orbit of the Earth in space is approximately a circle, a threedimensional (closed) curve in space: the Earth returns every year to the same point in space. However, it arrives there at a different (later) time. The world line of the Earth is helical in spacetime (a curve in a fourdimensional space) and does not return to the same point.
Spacetime is the collection of points called events, together with a continuous and smooth coordinate system identifying the events. Each event can be labeled by four numbers: a time coordinate and three space coordinates; thus spacetime is a fourdimensional space. The mathematical term for spacetime is a fourdimensional manifold. The concept may be applied as well to a higherdimensional space. For easy visualizations of four dimensions, two space coordinates are often suppressed. The event is then represented by a point in a Minkowski diagram, which is a plane usually plotted with the time coordinate, say t, upwards and the space coordinate, say x horizontally. As expressed by F.R. Harvey

A curve M in [spacetime] is called a worldline of a particle if its tangent is future timelike at each point. The arclength parameter is called proper time and usually denoted τ. The length of M is called the proper time of the worldline or particle. If the worldline M is a line segment, then the particle is said to be in free fall.^{[2]}
A world line traces out the path of a single point in spacetime. A world sheet is the analogous twodimensional surface traced out by a onedimensional line (like a string) traveling through spacetime. The world sheet of an open string (with loose ends) is a strip; that of a closed string (a loop) is a volume.
Once the object is not approximated as a mere point but has extended volume, it traces out not a world line but rather a world tube.
World lines as a tool to describe events
A onedimensional line or curve can be represented by the coordinates as a function of one parameter. Each value of the parameter corresponds to a point in spacetime and varying the parameter traces out a line. So in mathematical terms a curve is defined by four coordinate functions x^a(\tau),\; a=0,1,2,3 (where x^{0} usually denotes the time coordinate) depending on one parameter \tau. A coordinate grid in spacetime is the set of curves one obtains if three out of four coordinate functions are set to a constant.
Sometimes, the term world line is loosely used for any curve in spacetime. This terminology causes confusions. More properly, a world line is a curve in spacetime which traces out the (time) history of a particle, observer or small object. One usually takes the proper time of an object or an observer as the curve parameter \tau along the world line.
Trivial examples of spacetime curves
Three different world lines representing travel at different constant speeds. t is time and x distance.
A curve that consists of a horizontal line segment (a line at constant coordinate time), may represent a rod in spacetime and would not be a world line in the proper sense. The parameter traces the length of the rod.
A line at constant space coordinate (a vertical line in the convention adopted above) may represent a particle at rest (or a stationary observer). A tilted line represents a particle with a constant coordinate speed (constant change in space coordinate with increasing time coordinate). The more the line is tilted from the vertical, the larger the speed.
Two world lines that start out separately and then intersect, signify a collision or "encounter." Two world lines starting at the same event in spacetime, each following its own path afterwards, may represent the decay of a particle into two others or the emission of one particle by another.
World lines of a particle and an observer may be interconnected with the world line of a photon (the path of light) and form a diagram which depicts the emission of a photon by a particle which is subsequently observed by the observer (or absorbed by another particle).
Tangent vector to a world line, fourvelocity
The four coordinate functions x^a(\tau),\; a=0,1,2,3 defining a world line, are real functions of a real variable \tau and can simply be differentiated in the usual calculus. Without the existence of a metric (this is important to realize) one can speak of the difference between a point p on the curve at the parameter value \tau_0 and a point on the curve a little (parameter \tau_0+\Delta\tau) farther away. In the limit \Delta\tau\rightarrow 0, this difference divided by \Delta\tau defines a vector, the tangent vector of the world line at the point p. It is a fourdimensional vector, defined in the point p. It is associated with the normal 3dimensional velocity of the object (but it is not the same) and therefore called fourvelocity \vec{v}, or in components:

\vec{v} = (v^0,v^1,v^2,v^3) = \left( \frac{dx^0}{d\tau}\;,\frac{dx^1}{d\tau}\;, \frac{dx^2}{d\tau}\;, \frac{dx^3}{d\tau} \right)
where the derivatives are taken at the point p, so at \tau=\tau_0.
All curves through point p have a tangent vector, not only world lines. The sum of two vectors is again a tangent vector to some other curve and the same holds for multiplying by a scalar. Therefore, all tangent vectors in a point p span a linear space, called the tangent space at point p. For example, taking a 2dimensional space, like the (curved) surface of the Earth, its tangent space at a specific point would be the flat approximation of the curved space.
World lines in special relativity
So far a world line (and the concept of tangent vectors) has been described without a means of quantifying the interval between events. The basic mathematics is as follows: The theory of special relativity puts some constraints on possible world lines. In special relativity the description of spacetime is limited to special coordinate systems that do not accelerate (and so do not rotate either), called inertial coordinate systems. In such coordinate systems, the speed of light is a constant. The structure of spacetime is determined by a bilinear form η which gives a real number for each pair of events. The bilinear form is sometimes called a spacetime metric, but since distinct events sometimes result in a zero value, unlike metrics in metric spaces of mathematics, the bilinear form is not a mathematical metric on spacetime.
World lines of particles/objects at constant speed are called geodesics. In special relativity these are straight lines in Minkowski space.
Often the time units are chosen such that the speed of light is represented by lines at a fixed angle, usually at 45 degrees, forming a cone with the vertical (time) axis. In general, useful curves in spacetime can be of three types (the other types would be partly one, partly another type):

lightlike curves, having at each point the speed of light. They form a cone in spacetime, dividing it into two parts. The cone is threedimensional in spacetime, appears as a line in drawings with two dimensions suppressed, and as a cone in drawings with one spatial dimension suppressed.
An example of a
light cone, the threedimensional surface of all possible light rays arriving at and departing from a point in spacetime. Here, it is depicted with one spatial dimension suppressed.

timelike curves, with a speed less than the speed of light. These curves must fall within a cone defined by lightlike curves. In our definition above: world lines are timelike curves in spacetime.

spacelike curves falling outside the light cone. Such curves may describe, for example, the length of a physical object. The circumference of a cylinder and the length of a rod are spacelike curves.
At a given event on a world line, spacetime (Minkowski space) is divided into three parts.

The future of the given event is formed by all events that can be reached through timelike curves lying within the future light cone.

The past of the given event is formed by all events that can influence the event (that is, which can be connected by world lines within the past light cone to the given event).

The lightcone at the given event is formed by all events that can be connected through light rays with the event. When we observe the sky at night, we basically see only the past light cone within the entire spacetime.

Elsewhere is the region between the two light cones. Points in an observer's elsewhere are inaccessible to her/him; only points in the past can send signals to the observer. In ordinary laboratory experience, using common units and methods of measurement, it may seem that we look at the present, but in fact there is always a delay time for light to propagate. For example, we see the Sun as it was about 8 minutes ago, not as it is "right now." Unlike the present in Galilean/Newtonian theory, the elsewhere is thick; it is not a 3dimensional volume but is instead a 4dimensional spacetime region.

Included in "elsewhere" is the simultaneous hyperplane, which is defined for a given observer by a space which is hyperbolicorthogonal to her/his world line. It is really threedimensional, though it would be a 2plane in the diagram because we had to throw away one dimension to make an intelligible picture. Although the light cones are the same for all observers at a given spacetime event, different observers, with differing velocities but coincident at the event (point) in the spacetime, have world lines that cross each other at an angle determined by their relative velocities, and thus they have different simultaneous hyperplanes.

The present often means the single spacetime event being considered.
Simultaneous hyperplane
Since a world line \scriptstyle w(\tau) \isin R^4 determines a velocity 4vector \scriptstyle v = \frac {dw}{d\tau} that is timelike, the Minkowski form \scriptstyle \eta(v,x) determines a linear function \scriptstyle R^4 \rarr R by \scriptstyle x \mapsto \eta( v , x ) . Let N be the null space of this linear functional. Then N is called the simultaneous hyperplane with respect to v. The relativity of simultaneity is a statement that N depends on v. Indeed, N is the orthogonal complement of v with respect to η. When two world lines u and w are related by \scriptstyle \frac {du}{d\tau} = \frac {dw}{d\tau}, then they share the same simultaneous hyperplane. This hyperplane exists mathematically, but physical relations in relativity involve the movement of information by light. For instance, the traditional electrostatic force described by Coulomb's law may be pictured in a simultaneous hyperplane, but relativistic relations of charge and force involve retarded potentials.
World lines in general relativity
The use of world lines in general relativity is basically the same as in special relativity, with the difference that spacetime can be curved. A metric exists and its dynamics are determined by the Einstein field equations and are dependent on the mass distribution in spacetime. Again the metric defines lightlike (null), spacelike and timelike curves. Also, in general relativity, world lines are timelike curves in spacetime, where timelike curves fall within the lightcone. However, a lightcone is not necessarily inclined at 45 degrees to the time axis. However, this is an artifact of the chosen coordinate system, and reflects the coordinate freedom (diffeomorphism invariance) of general relativity. Any timelike curve admits a comoving observer whose "time axis" corresponds to that curve, and, since no observer is privileged, we can always find a local coordinate system in which lightcones are inclined at 45 degrees to the time axis. See also for example EddingtonFinkelstein coordinates.
World lines of freefalling particles or objects (such as planets around the Sun or an astronaut in space) are called geodesics.
World lines in literature
In 1884 C. H. Hinton wrote an essay "What is the fourth dimension ?" which he published as a scientific romance. He wrote

Why, then, should not the fourdimensional beings be ourselves, and our successive states the passing of them through the threedimensional space to which our consciousness is confined.^{[3]}
A popular description of human world lines was given by J. C. Fields at the University of Toronto in the early days of relativity. As described by Toronto lawyer Norman Robertson:

I remember [Fields] lecturing at one of the Saturday evening lectures at the Royal Canadian Institute. It was advertised to be a "Mathematical Fantasy" — and it was! The substance of the exercise was as follows: He postulated that, commencing with his birth, every human being had some kind of spiritual aura with a long filament or thread attached, that travelled behind him throughout his life. He then proceeded in imagination to describe the complicated entanglement every individual became involved in his relationship to other individuals, comparing the simple entanglements of youth to those complicated knots that develop in later life.^{[4]}
Because they oversimplify world lines, which traverse fourdimensional spacetime, into onedimensional timelines, almost all purported sciencefiction stories about time travel are actually wishful fantasy stories. Some device or superpowered person is generally portrayed as departing from one point in time, and with little or no subjective lag, arriving at some other point in time — but at the same literally geographic point in space, typically inside a workshop or near some historic site. However, in reality the planet, its solar system, and its galaxy would all be at vastly different spatial positions on arrival. Thus, the time travel mechanism would also have to provide instantaneous teleportation, with infinitely accurate and simultaneous adjustment of final 3D location, linear momentum, and angular momentum.
World lines appeared in Jeffrey Rowland's webcomic Wigu Adventures as part of the "Magical Adventures in Space" side story line, in which Topato Potato and Sheriff Pony accidentally delete a world line relating to the initial creation of Earth from asteroids, causing the Earth to never have existed. According to this webcomic, calculating the exact coordinates of a world line is "embarrassingly simple", and the deletion of the world line specified is executed by making a call and entering the coordinates of the world line, and pressing 3.^{[5]}
Author Oliver Franklin published a science fiction work in 2008 entitled World Lines in which he related a simplified explanation of the hypothesis for laymen.^{[6]}
In the short story LifeLine, author Robert A. Heinlein describes the world line of a person:^{[7]}

He stepped up to one of the reporters. "Suppose we take you as an example. Your name is Rogers, is it not? Very well, Rogers, you are a spacetime event having duration four ways. You are not quite six feet tall, you are about twenty inches wide and perhaps ten inches thick. In time, there stretches behind you more of this spacetime event, reaching to perhaps nineteensixteen, of which we see a crosssection here at right angles to the time axis, and as thick as the present. At the far end is a baby, smelling of sour milk and drooling its breakfast on its bib. At the other end lies, perhaps, an old man someplace in the nineteeneighties.

"Imagine this spacetime event that we call Rogers as a long pink worm, continuous through the years, one end in his mother's womb, and the other at the grave..."
Heinlein's Methuselah's Children uses the term, as does James Blish's The Quincunx of Time (expanded from "Beep").
A visual novel named Steins;Gate, produced by 5pb., tells a story based on the shifting of world lines. Its series of works under the name hypothetical science ADV also utilized the concept.
See also
References

^ Viking Press, ISBN 0670503762

^ F. Reese Harvey (1990) Spinors and calibrations, pages 62,3, Academic Press, ISBN 0123296501

^ C. H. Hinton (1884) What is the fourth dimension, Scientific Romances, link from Internet Archive

^ Gilbert de Beauregard Robinson (1979) The Mathematics Department in the University of Toronto, p. 19, University of Toronto Press ISBN 0772716005

^ "Wigu Adventures".

^ Oliver Franklin (2008). World Lines. Epic Press.

^ "Technovelgy: Chronovitameter". Retrieved 8 September 2010.

Minkowski, Hermann (1909), "Raum und Zeit", Physikalische Zeitschrift 10: 75–88


Various English translations on Wikisource: Space and Time
External links

World lines article on h2g2.

in depth text on world lines and special relativity
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