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Yavne

Yavne
  • יַבְנֶה
  • يفنه
Hebrew transcription(s)
 • ISO 259 Yabne
Official logo of Yavne
Coat of arms of Yavne
Yavne is located in Israel
Yavne
Coordinates:
District Central
Founded 1949
Government
 • Type City
 • Mayor Zvi Gov-Ari
Area
 • Total 10,700 dunams (10.7 km2 or 4.1 sq mi)
Population (2013)[1]
 • Total 36,980

Yavne (Hebrew: יַבְנֶה), or Jamnia in some English texts, is a city in the Central District of Israel. According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), at the end of 2013 the city had a population of 36,980.[1]

Contents

  • History 1
  • Demographics 2
    • Income 2.1
    • Education 2.2
  • Economy 3
  • Neighborhoods 4
    • Green Yavne 4.1
  • Sports 5
  • Notable residents 6
  • International relations 7
    • Twin towns — Sister cities 7.1
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10

History

Twelfth-century tomb in Yavne attributed to both Rabbi Gamaliel of Yavne and Abu Hurairah, a Companion of Muhammad.

Yavne was one of the major ancient cities in the southern coastal plain, situated 20 km (12.43 mi) south of Jaffa, 15 km (9.32 mi) north of Ashdod, and 7 km (4.35 mi) east of the Mediterranean.[2]

Excavations were carried out on the ancient raised tell which developed on a natural kurkar hill. The tell was inhabited, possibly continuously, until the British Mandate period. During some periods, especially the Byzantine period, settlement expanded to cover part of the plain and hills surrounding the tell.[2]

Salvage excavations carried out in 2001 by the Israel Antiquities Authority uncovered several burials at the northern foot of the original tell. Most of the burials are dated to the later Iron Age. One burial points to a late Bronze Age occupation.

The Hebrew Bible refers to Yavne'el ( Joshua 15:11; 2 Chron. 26:6-8) (sometimes transliterated as Jebneel), a border city between the tribal allotments of Judah and Dan.

In Roman times, the city was known as Iamnia, also spelled Jamnia. It was bequeathed by King Herod upon his death to his sister Salome. Upon her death it passed to Emperor Augustus who managed it as a private imperial estate, a status it was to maintain for at least a century.[3]

After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, Rabban Yochanan Ben Zakkai moved the Sanhedrin to Yavne. Some scholars believe the so-called Council of Yavne met there. The Sanhedrin left Yavne for Usha in 80 CE and returned in 116 CE.

Mamluk minaret, Yavne

Byzantine period finds from excavations include an aqueduct east of the tell, and a kiln.[4][5] In 2007, remains ranging from the Early Islamic period until the British Mandate period were uncovered.[6] An additional kiln, and part of a commercial/industrial area were uncovered at the west of the tell in 2009.[7]

The Crusaders called the city Ibelin and built a castle there in 1141. Its namesake noble family, Ibelin, was important in the Kingdom of Jerusalem and later in the Kingdom of Cyprus. Ibelin was captured by Saladin in 1187. Salvage excavations at the west of the tell unearthed a stash of 53 Crusader coins of the 12th and 13th centuries.[7]

Maqam Abu Hurayra, described as "one of the finest domed mausoleums in Palestine", is located in Yavne. Since the 12th century, it has been known as a tomb of Abu Hurairah, a companion (sahaba) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. After 1948 the shrine has been taken over by Sephardic Jews who believe that the tomb is the burial place of Rabbi Gamaliel of Yavne.[8]

Before the establishment of Israel, the Palestinian Arab village of Yibna was located there. In salvage excavations in 2001–2002, remains of the pre-state town were uncovered.[9]

Demographics

Yavne East railway station

According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), in 2001 the ethnic makeup of the city was Jewish and others, without significant Arab population. In 2001, the population included 15,800 men and 16,000 women. The population growth rate in 2001 was 0.5%. 103 new residents moved to Yavne in that year.

Income

Synagogue in Yavne

In 2000, there were 10,910 salaried workers and 966 self-employed. The mean monthly wage for a salaried worker was ILS 5,699. Salaried men had a mean monthly wage of ILS 7,430 compared to ILS 4,042 for women. The mean income for the self-employed was 7,631. 640 citizens received unemployment benefits and 2,396 received an income guarantee.

Education

According to CBS figures for 2001, there were 16 schools and 7,445 students in Yavne (11 elementary schools with 4,037 students and 9 high schools with 3,408 students). 59.6% of 12th graders were entitled to a matriculation certificate that year.

Economy

Residential neighborhood from the Mamluk Bridge

Major companies based in Yavne include: Ormat Industries, Aeronautics Defense Systems, Avisar and Orbotech.

Neighborhoods

Green Yavne

In 2012 a new green neighborhood "Neot Rabin" was inaugurated in the south of the city, which will gradually encompas 3,200 units. This neighborhood will pioneer in Israel Pneumatic Garbage Systems

Sports

Maccabi Yavne is the city's major football club. During the 1980s the club played in the top division and in 1985 won the Toto Cup. Today they are in Liga Leumit. The basketball team, Elitzur Yavne, have also played in the Liga Leumit (basketball) since 2007.

Omri Casspi, the first Israeli to play in the National Basketball Association, grew up in the city and played for some of its teams.

Notable residents

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Yavne is twinned with:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "הודעה בדבר קביעת מספר חברי המועצה בעיריות ובמועצות מקומיות" (PDF).  
  2. ^ a b Rural settlement in the vicinity of Yavneh in the Byzantine period
  3. ^ Kletter, Raz (2004). "Tel Yavne". Excavations and Surveys in Israel 116. Retrieved 2010-08-08. 
  4. ^ Velednizki, Noy (2004). "Yavne Final Report". Excavations and Surveys in Israel 116. Retrieved 2010-08-08. 
  5. ^ Sion, Ofer (2005). "Yavne Final Report". Excavations and Surveys in Israel 117. Retrieved 2010-08-08. 
  6. ^ Volynsky, Felix (2009). "Tel Yavne Final Report". Excavations and Surveys in Israel 121. Retrieved 2010-08-08. 
  7. ^ a b Shimron, Ilanit (2009-04-06). מטמון נדיר נמצא בחפירות ארכיאולוגיות בתל יבנה [Rare Treasure Found in Excavations at Tel Yavne] (in Hebrew). Ynet.co.il (local). Retrieved 2010-08-08. 
  8. ^  
  9. ^ Buchennino, Aviva (2006). "Yavne Final Report". Excavations and Surveys in Israel 118. Retrieved 2010-08-10. 

External links

  • Municipal website
  • Tel Yavne
  • Yavneh Yields Over a Hundred Philistine Cult Stands Biblical Archaeology Review
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