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Rapid Increases in the Steady-State Concentration of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Lungs and Heart after Particulate Air Pollution Inhalation

By Gurgueira, Sonia A.

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Book Id: WPLBN0000064240
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 0.6 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005

Title: Rapid Increases in the Steady-State Concentration of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Lungs and Heart after Particulate Air Pollution Inhalation  
Author: Gurgueira, Sonia A.
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Government publications, United Nations., United Nations. Office for Disarmament Affairs
Collections: Government Library Collection, Disarmament Documents
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: United Nations- Office for Disarmament Affairs (Unoda)

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Gurgueira, S. A. (n.d.). Rapid Increases in the Steady-State Concentration of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Lungs and Heart after Particulate Air Pollution Inhalation. Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


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Government Reference Publication

Excerpt
Excerpt: In vitro studies suggest that reactive oxygen species contribute to the cardiopulmonary toxicity of particulate air pollution. To evaluate the ability of particulate air pollution to promote oxidative stress and tissue damage in vivo, we studied a rat model of short-term exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). We exposed adult Sprague-Dawley rats to either CAPs aerosols (group 1; average CAPs mass concentration, 300 +/- 60 micrograms/m3) or filtered air (sham controls) for periods of 1?5 hr. Rats breathing CAPs aerosols for 5 hr showed significant oxidative stress, determined as in situ chemiluminescence in the lung [group 1, 41 +/- 4; sham, 24 +/- 1 counts per second (cps)/cm2] and heart (group 1, 45 +/- 4; sham, 24 +/- 2 cps/cm2) but not liver (group 1, 10 +/- 3; sham, 13 +/- 3 cps/cm2). Increases in oxidant levels were also triggered by highly toxic residual oil fly ash particles (lung chemiluminescence, 90 +/- 10 cps/cm2; heart chemiluminescence, 50 +/- 3 cps/cm2) but not by particle-free air or by inert carbon black aerosols (control particles). Increases in chemiluminescence showed strong associations with the CAPs content of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in the lung and with Fe, aluminum, silicon, and titanium in the heart. The oxidant stress imposed by 5-hr exposure to CAPs was associated with slight but significant increases in the lung and heart water content (5% in both tissues, p < 0.05) and with increased serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (80%), indicating mild damage to both tissues. Strikingly, CAPs inhalation also led to tissue-specific increases in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, suggesting that episodes of increased particulate air pollution not only have potential for oxidant injurious effects but may also trigger adaptive responses. Key words: CAPs, concentrated ambient particles, oxidative stress, particulate air pollution, reactive oxygen species. Environ Health Perspect 110:749?755 (2002). [12 June 2002].

 

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