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Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms

By Lewis, Philip A.

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Book Id: WPLBN0000095827
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 4.8 MB
Reproduction Date: 2007

Title: Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms  
Author: Lewis, Philip A.
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Ecology, Natural resource issues, Environemtal protection
Collections: Environmental Awareness Library Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Lewis, P. A. (n.d.). Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms. Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Excerpt: The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500), the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 (PL 95-217), and the Water Quality Act of 1987 (PL 100-4) explicitly state that it is the national policy that the discharge of toxic substances in toxic amounts be prohibited. The detection of chronically toxic effects, therefore, plays an important role in identifying and controlling toxic discharges to surface waters. This manual a third edition of the freshwater chronic toxicity test manual for effluents first published (EPA/600/4-85/014) EMSL-Cincinnati in December 1985 and revised (EPA/600/4-89/001) in March, 1989. It provides updated methods for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater organisms for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regional and state programs, and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permittees.

Table of Contents
CONTENTS Page Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii Section Number Page 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Short-Term Methods for Estimating Chronic Toxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Types of Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Static Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Toxicity Test Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Health and Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 General Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Safety Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 General Laboratory and Field Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Disease Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Safety Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Waste Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. Quality Assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Facilities, Equipment, and Test Chambers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Test Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Laboratory Water Used for Culturing and Test Dilution Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Effluent and Receiving Water Sampling and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Test Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Quality of Test Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Food Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Acceptability of Short-Term Chronic Toxicity Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Analytical Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Calibration and Standardization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Replication and

 

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