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The Red Tide Toxin, Brevetoxin, Induces Embryo Toxicity and Developmental Abnormalities

By Ramsdell, John S.

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Book Id: WPLBN0000192900
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 0.1 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005

Title: The Red Tide Toxin, Brevetoxin, Induces Embryo Toxicity and Developmental Abnormalities  
Author: Ramsdell, John S.
Language: English
Subject: Government publications, United Nations., United Nations. Office for Disarmament Affairs
Collections: Government Library Collection, Disarmament Documents
Publication Date:
Publisher: United Nations- Office for Disarmament Affairs (Unoda)


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Ramsdell, J. S. (n.d.). The Red Tide Toxin, Brevetoxin, Induces Embryo Toxicity and Developmental Abnormalities. Retrieved from

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Brevetoxins are lipid-soluble, polyether, marine toxins that have an excitatory action on voltage-sensitive sodium channels (1). Brevetoxins are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve (2,3), an organism responsible for toxic red tides in the Gulf of Mexico (4). Nine brevetoxins (PbTx1?9) are known to be produced by G. breve, with PbTx-3, PbTx-1, and PbTx-2 being the predominate forms (5). PbTx-1 is the most potent of the brevetoxins, with a median lethal dose (LD50) of 180 micrograms/kg in the mouse and 4 ng/mL in the fish (6). Brevetoxins bioaccumulate in various filter- feeding organisms, particularly shellfish (7). Shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins are toxic to humans and are responsible for neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP). NSP is characterized by gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms, which include tingling sensations in the mouth and extremities, motor incoordination, hot?cold flashes, slowed pulse, pupil dilation, and mild diarrhea (8).


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