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Stratospheric So2 and Sulphate Aerosol, Model Simulations and Satellite Observations : Volume 13, Issue 4 (29/04/2013)

By Brühl, C.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003974546
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 31
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Stratospheric So2 and Sulphate Aerosol, Model Simulations and Satellite Observations : Volume 13, Issue 4 (29/04/2013)  
Author: Brühl, C.
Volume: Vol. 13, Issue 4
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2013
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Höpfner, M., Lelieveld, J., Tost, H., & Brühl, C. (2013). Stratospheric So2 and Sulphate Aerosol, Model Simulations and Satellite Observations : Volume 13, Issue 4 (29/04/2013). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Atmospheric Chemistry Department, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany. A multiyear study with the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC with the aerosol module GMXe at high altitude resolution demonstrates that the sulfur gases COS and SO2, the latter from low-latitude volcanic eruptions, predominantly control the formation of stratospheric aerosol. The model consistently uses the same parameters in the troposphere and stratosphere for 7 aerosol modes applied. Lower boundary conditions for COS and other long-lived trace gases are taken from measurement networks, while estimates of volcanic SO2 emissions are based on satellite observations. We show comparisons with satellite data for aerosol extinction (e.g. SAGE) and SO2 in the middle atmosphere (MIPAS on ENVISAT). This corroborates the interannual variability induced by the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, which is internally generated by the model. The model also realistically simulates the radiative effects of stratospheric and tropospheric aerosol including the effects on the model dynamics. The medium strength volcanic eruptions of 2005 and 2006 exerted a nonnegligible radiative forcing of up to −0.6 W m−2 in the tropics, while the large Pinatubo eruption caused a maximum though short term tropical forcing of about −10 W m−2. The study also shows that observed upper stratospheric SO2 can be simulated accurately only when a sulphur sink on meteoritic dust is included and the photolysis of gaseous H2SO4 in the near infrared is higher than assumed previously.

Summary
Stratospheric SO2 and sulphate aerosol, model simulations and satellite observations

Excerpt
Arfeuille, F., Luo, B. P., Heckendorn, P., Weisenstein, D., Sheng, J. X., Rozanov, E., Schraner, M., Brönnimann, S., Thomason, L. W., and Peter, T.: Uncertainties in modelling the stratospheric warming following Mt. Pinatubo eruption, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, 4601–4635, doi:10.5194/acpd-13-4601-2013, 2013.; Bardeen, C. G., Toon, O. B., Jensen, E. J., Marsh, D. R., and Harvey, V. L.: Numerical simulations of the three-dimensional distribution of meteoric dust in the mesosphere and upper stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D17202, doi:10.1029/2007JD009515, 2008.; Benduhn, F. and Lawrence, M. G.: An investigation of the role of sedimentation for stratospheric climate engineering, J. Geophys. Res., in review, 2013.; Brühl, C., Lelieveld, J., Crutzen, P. J., and Tost, H.: The role of carbonyl sulphide as a source of stratospheric sulphate aerosol and its impact on climate, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1239–1253, doi:10.5194/acp-12-1239-2012, 2012.; Carslaw, K. S., Luo, B., and Peter, T.: An analytical expression for the composition of aqueous HNO3-H2SO4 stratospheric aerosols including gas phase removal of HNO3, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 1877–1880, 1995.; Grainger, R. G., Lambert, A., Rodgers, C. D., Taylor, F. W., and Deshler, T.: Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 16507–16518, 1995.; Giorgetta, M. A., Manzini, E., Roeckner, E., Esch, M., and Bengtsson, L.: Climatology and forcing of the quasi-biennial oscillation in the MAECHAM5 model, J. Climate, 19, 3882–3901, 2006.; Hervig, M. E., Gordley, L. L., Deaver, L. E., Siskind, D. E., Stevens, M. H., Russell III, J. M., Bailey, S. M., Megner, L., and Bardeen, C. G.: First satellite observations of meteoric smoke in the middle atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L18805, doi:10.1029/2009GL039737, 2009.; Höpfner, M., Glatthor, N., Grabowski, U., Kellmann, S., Kiefer, M., Linden, A., Orphal, J., Stiller, G., von Clarmann, T., and B. Funke: Sulphur dioxide (SO2) as observed by MIPAS/Envisat: temporal development and spatial distribution at 15–45 km altitude, Atmos. Phys. Chem. Discuss., in review, 2013.; Hofmann, D., Barnes, J., O'Neill, M., Trudeau, M., and Neely, R.: Increase in background stratospheric aerosol observed with lidar at Mauna Loa Observatory and Boulder, Colorado, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L15808, doi:10.1029/2009GL039008, 2009.; Hunten, D. M., Turco, R. P., and Toon, O. B.: Smoke and dust particles of meteoric origin in the mesosphere and stratosphere, J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 1342–1357, 1980.; Jöckel, P., Tost, H., Pozzer, A., Brühl, C., Buchholz, J., Ganzeveld, L., Hoor, P., Ke

 

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