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Multi-decadal Uptake of Carbon Dioxide Into Subtropical Mode Water of the North Atlantic Ocean : Volume 9, Issue 7 (18/07/2012)

By Bates, N. R.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003976655
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 11
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Multi-decadal Uptake of Carbon Dioxide Into Subtropical Mode Water of the North Atlantic Ocean : Volume 9, Issue 7 (18/07/2012)  
Author: Bates, N. R.
Volume: Vol. 9, Issue 7
Language: English
Subject: Science, Biogeosciences
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2012
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Bates, N. R. (2012). Multi-decadal Uptake of Carbon Dioxide Into Subtropical Mode Water of the North Atlantic Ocean : Volume 9, Issue 7 (18/07/2012). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, Ferry Reach, Bermuda. Natural climate variability impacts the multi-decadal uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (Cant) into the North Atlantic Ocean subpolar and subtropical gyres. Previous studies have shown that there is significant uptake of CO2 into subtropical mode water (STMW) of the North Atlantic. STMW forms south of the Gulf Stream in winter and constitutes the dominant upper-ocean water mass in the subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean. Observations at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site near Bermuda show an increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of +1.51 ± 0.08 μmol kg−1 yr−1 between 1988 and 2011, but also an increase in ocean acidification indicators such as pH at rates (−0.0022 ± 0.0002 yr−1) higher than the surface ocean (Bates et al., 2012). It is estimated that the sink of CO2 into STMW was 0.985 ± 0.018 Pg C (Pg = 1015 g C) between 1988 and 2011 (70 ± 1.8% of which is due to uptake of Cant). The sink of CO2 into the STMW is 20% of the CO2 uptake in the North Atlantic Ocean between 14°–50° N (Takahashi et al., 2009). However, the STMW sink of CO2 was strongly coupled to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), with large uptake of CO2 into STMW during the 1990s during a predominantly NAO positive phase. In contrast, uptake of CO2 into STMW was much reduced in the 2000s during the NAO neutral/negative phase. Thus, NAO induced variability of the STMW CO2 sink is important when evaluating multi-decadal changes in North Atlantic Ocean CO2 sinks.

Summary
Multi-decadal uptake of carbon dioxide into subtropical mode water of the North Atlantic Ocean

Excerpt
Alfutis, M. A. and Cornillon, P.: Annual and interannual changes in the North Atlantic STMW layer properties, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 2066–2086, 2001.; Andersson, A. J., Krug, L. A., Bates, N. R., and Doney, S.: Air-sea CO2 flux in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre: role and influence of STMW formation, Deep-Sea Res. II, in press, 2012.; Bates, N. R.: Interannual variability of oceanic CO2 and biogeochemical properties in the Western North Atlantic subtropical gyre, Deep-Sea Res. II, 48, 1507–1528, doi:10.1016/S0967-0645(00)00151-X, 2001.; Bates, N. R.: Interannual variability of the oceanic CO2 sink in the subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean over the last two decades, J. Geophys. Res. Ocean., 112, C09013, doi:10.1029/2006JC003759, 2007.; Bates, N. R. and Peters, A. J.: The contribution of atmospheric acid deposition to ocean acidification in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, Mar. Chem., 107, 547–558, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2007.08.002, 2007.; Bates, N. R., Michaels, A. F., and Knap, A. H.: Seasonal and interannual variability of oceanic carbon dioxide species at the US JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site, Deep-Sea Res. II, 43, 347–383, doi:10.1016/0967-0645(95)00093-3, Corrigendum: 43, 1435–1435, 1996a.; Bates, N. R., Michaels, A. F., and Knap, A. H.: Alkalinity changes in the Sargasso Sea: Geochemical evidence of calcification?, Mar. Chem., 51, 347–358, doi:10.1016/0304-4203(95)00068-2, 1996b.; Bates, N. R., Pequignet, A. C., Johnson, R. J., and Gruber, N.: A short-term sink for atmospheric CO2 in subtropical mode water of the North Atlantic Ocean, Nature, 420, 489–493, doi:10.1038/nature01253, 2002.; Bates, N. R., Best, M. H. P., Neely, K., Garley, R., Dickson, A. G., and Johnson, R. J.: Detecting anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake and ocean acidification in the North Atlantic Ocean, Biogeosciences Discuss., 9, 989–1019, doi:10.5194/bgd-9-989-2012, 2012.; Behringer, D. and Stommel, H.: The Beta-Spiral in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, Deep-Sea Res., 27, 225–238, 1980.; Dickson, A. G.: Thermodynamics of the dissociation of boric acid in synthetic seawater from 273.15 to 318.15 K, Deep Sea Res. Part A, 37, 755–766, 1990.; Jenkins, W. G.: On the climate of the subtropical gyre: Decade timescale variation in water mass renewal in the Sargasso Sea, J. Mar. Res., 40, 265–290, 1982.; Dickson, A. G. and Millero, F. J.: A Comparison of the Equilibrium Constants for the dissociation of carbonic acid in seawater media, Deep Sea Res. Part A, 34, 1733–1743, 1987.; Dickson, A. G., Sabine, C. L., and Christian, J. R.: Guide to best practices for ocean CO2 measurements, Sidney, British Columbia, North Pacific Marine Science Organization, PICES Special Publication 3, 2007.; Dore, J. E., Lukas, R., Sadler, D. W., Church, M. J., and Karl, D. M.: Physical and biogeochemical modulation of ocean acidification in the central North Pacific, Proc. Nat. Aca. Sci., 106, 12235–12240, doi:10.1073/pnas.0906044106, 2009.; Forget, G., Maze, G., Buckley, M., and Marshall, J.: Estimated Seasonal Cycle of North Atlantic Eighteen Degree Water, J. Phys. Ocean., 41, 269–286, doi:10.101175/2010JPO4257.1, 2011.; González-Dávila, M., Santana-Casiano, J. M., Rueda, M. J., and Llinás, O.: The water column d

 

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