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Australian Net (1950S–1990) Soil Organic Carbon Erosion: Implications for Co2 Emission and Land–atmosphere Modelling : Volume 11, Issue 18 (29/09/2014)

By Chappell, A.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003978266
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 10
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Australian Net (1950S–1990) Soil Organic Carbon Erosion: Implications for Co2 Emission and Land–atmosphere Modelling : Volume 11, Issue 18 (29/09/2014)  
Author: Chappell, A.
Volume: Vol. 11, Issue 18
Language: English
Subject: Science, Biogeosciences
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2014
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

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Chappell, A., Bui, E., Webb, N. P., & Viscarra Rossel, R. A. (2014). Australian Net (1950S–1990) Soil Organic Carbon Erosion: Implications for Co2 Emission and Land–atmosphere Modelling : Volume 11, Issue 18 (29/09/2014). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: CSIRO Land and Water and Sustainable Agriculture National Research Flagship, G.P.O. Box 1666, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. The debate remains unresolved about soil erosion substantially offsetting fossil fuel emissions and acting as an important source or sink of CO2. There is little historical land use and management context to this debate, which is central to Australia's recent past of European settlement, agricultural expansion and agriculturally-induced soil erosion. We use catchment scale (∼25 km2) estimates of 137Cs-derived net (1950s–1990) soil redistribution of all processes (wind, water and tillage) to calculate the net soil organic carbon (SOC) redistribution across Australia. We approximate the selective removal of SOC at net eroding locations and SOC enrichment of transported sediment and net depositional locations. We map net (1950s–1990) SOC redistribution across Australia and estimate erosion by all processes to be ∼4 Tg SOC yr−1, which represents a loss of ∼2% of the total carbon stock (0–10 cm) of Australia. Assuming this net SOC loss is mineralised, the flux (∼15 Tg CO2-equivalents yr−1) represents an omitted 12% of CO2-equivalent emissions from all carbon pools in Australia. Although a small source of uncertainty in the Australian carbon budget, the mass flux interacts with energy and water fluxes, and its omission from land surface models likely creates more uncertainty than has been previously recognised.

Summary
Australian net (1950s–1990) soil organic carbon erosion: implications for CO2 emission and land–atmosphere modelling

Excerpt
Australian Greenhouse Office: Greenhouse gas emissions from land use change in Australia: Results of the National Carbon Accounting System 1988–2003. Australian Greenhouse Office, Canberra, Australia, 2005.; Berhe, A. A. and Kleber, M.: Erosion, deposition, and the persistence of soil organic matter: mechanistic considerations and problems with terminology, Earth Surf. Process. Land., 38, 908–912, 2013.; Berhe, A. A., Harte, J., Harden, J. W., and Torn, M. S.: The significance of the erosion-induced terrestrial carbon sink, BioScience, 57, 337–346, 2007.; Chappell, A.: Using remote sensing to and geostatistics to map 137Cs-derived net soil flux in south-west Niger, J. Arid Environ., 39, 441–455, 1998.; Chappell, A.: The limitations for measuring soil redistribution using 137Cs in semi-arid environments, Geomorphology, 29, 135–152, 1999.; Chappell, A. and Warren, A.: Spatial scales of 137Cs-derived soil flux by wind in a 25 km2 arable area of eastern England, Catena, 52, 209–234, 2003.; Chappell, A., Hancock, G., Viscarra Rossel, R. A., and Loughran, R.: Spatial uncertainty of the 137Cs reference inventory for Australian soil, J. Geophys. Res., 116, F04014, doi:10.1029/2010JF001942, 2011a.; Chappell, A., Viscarra Rossel, R. A., and Loughran, R.: Spatial uncertainty of 137Cs-derived net (1950ss–1990) soil redistribution for Australia, J. Geophys. Res., 116, F04015, doi:10.1029/2010JF001943, 2011b.; Chappell, A., Sanderman, J., Thomas, M., Read, A., and Leslie, C.: The dynamics of soil redistribution and the implications for soil organic carbon accounting in agricultural south-eastern Australia, Glob. Change Biol., 18, 2081–2088, 2012.; Chappell, A., Webb, N. P., Butler, H., Strong, C., McTainsh, G. H., Leys, J. F., and Viscarra Rossel, R.: Soil organic carbon dust emission: an omitted global source of atmospheric CO2, Glob. Change Biol., 19, 3238–3244, 2013.; de Roo, A. P. J.: The use of 137Cs as a tracer in an erosion study in south Limburg (The Netherlands) and the influence of Chernobyl fallout, Hydrol. Process., 5, 215–227, 1991.; Dlugoss, V., Fiener, P., Van Oost, K., and Schneider, K.: Model based analysis of lateral and vertical soil carbon fluxes induced by soil redistribution processes in a small agricultural catchment, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 37, 193–208, 2012.; Doetterl, S., Six, J., Van Wesemael, B., and Van Oost, K.: Carbon cycling in eroding landscapes: geomorphic controls on soil organic C pool composition and C stabilization, Glob. Change Biol., 18, 2218–2232, 2012a.; Doetterl, S., Van Oost, K., and Six, J.: Towards constraining the magnitude of global agricultural sediment and soil organic carbon fluxes, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 37, 642–655, 2012b.; Dymond, J. R.: Soil erosion in New Zealand is a net sink of CO2, Earth Surf. Process. Land. 35, 1763–1772, 2010.; Gallant, J. C. and Dowling, T. I.: A multiresolution index of valley bottom flatness for mapping depositional areas, Water Resour. Res., v. 39, p. 1347, 2003.; Harden, J. W., Sharpe, J. M., Parton, W. J., Ojima, D. S., Fries, T. L., Huntington, T. G., and Dabney, S. M.: Dynamic replacement and loss of soil carbon on eroding cropland, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 13, 885–901, 1999.; Haverd, V., Raupach, M. R., Briggs, P. R., J. G. Canadell., Davis, S. J., Law, R. M., Meyer, C. P., Peters, G. P., Pickett-Heaps, C., and Sherman, B.: The Australian terrestrial carbon budget, Biogeosciences, 10, 851–869, doi:10.5194/bg-10-851-2013, 2013.; Knapp, S., Smart, R., and Barodien, G.: National Land Use Maps: 1992/93, 1993/94, 1996/97, 1998/99, 2000/01, 2001/02, version 3, BRR 44, Bur. of Rural Sci, Can

 

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