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Solar Geoengineering Using Solid Aerosol in the Stratosphere : Volume 15, Issue 8 (21/04/2015)

By Weisenstein, D. K.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003979356
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 53
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Solar Geoengineering Using Solid Aerosol in the Stratosphere : Volume 15, Issue 8 (21/04/2015)  
Author: Weisenstein, D. K.
Volume: Vol. 15, Issue 8
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2015
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Keith, D. W., & Weisenstein, D. K. (2015). Solar Geoengineering Using Solid Aerosol in the Stratosphere : Volume 15, Issue 8 (21/04/2015). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: School of Engineering and Applied Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. Solid aerosol particles have long been proposed as an alternative to sulfate aerosols for solar geoengineering. Any solid aerosol introduced into the stratosphere would be subject to coagulation with itself, producing fractal aggregates, and with the natural sulfate aerosol, producing liquid-coated solids. Solid aerosols that are coated with sulfate and/or have formed aggregates may have very different scattering properties and chemical behavior than do uncoated non-aggregated monomers. We use a two-dimensional chemical transport model to capture the dynamics of interacting solid and liquid aerosols in the stratosphere. As an example, we apply the model to the possible use of alumina and diamond particles for solar geoengineering. For 240 nm radius alumina particles, for example, an injection rate of 4 Mt yr−1 produces a global-average radiative forcing of 1.3 W m−2 and minimal self-coagulation of alumina yet almost all alumina outside the tropics is coated with sulfate. For the same radiative forcing, these solid aerosols can produce less ozone loss, less stratospheric heating, and less forward scattering than do sulfate aerosols. Our results suggest that appropriately sized alumina, diamond or similar high-index particles may have less severe technology-specific risks than do sulfate aerosols. These results, particularly the ozone response, are subject to large uncertainties due the limited data on the rate constants of reactions on the dry surfaces.

Summary
Solar geoengineering using solid aerosol in the stratosphere

Excerpt
Blackstock, J. J., Battisti, D. S., Caldeira, K., Eardley, D. M., Katz, J. I., Keith, D. W., Patrinos, A. A. N., Schrag, D. P., Socolow, R. H., and Koonin, S. E.: Climate Engineering Responses to Climate Emergencies, Novim, available at: http://arxiv.org/pdf/0907.5140 (last access: 16 April 2015), 2009.; Brock, C. A., Hamill, P., Wilson, J. C., Jonsson, H. H., Chang, K. R.: Particle formation in the upper tropical troposphere: a source of nuclei for the stratospheric aerosol, Science, 270, 1650–1653, 1995.; Cirisan, A., Spichtinger, P., Luo, B. P., Weisenstein, D. K., Wernli, H., Lohmann, U., and Peter, T.: Microphysical and radiative changes in cirrus clouds by geoengineering the stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 4533–4548, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50388, 2013.; Clough, S. A., Shephard, M. W., Mlawer, E. J., Delamere, J. S., Iacono, M. J., Cady-Pereira, K., Boukabara, S., and Brown, P. D.: Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 91, 233–244, 2005.; Curry, C. L., Sillmann, J., Bronaugh, D., Alterskjaer, K., Cole, J. N. S., Ji, D., Kravitz, B., Kristjansson, J. E., Moore, J. C., Muri, H., Niemeier, U., Robock, A., Tilmes, S., and Yang, S.: A multimodel examination of climate extremes in an idealized geoengineering experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 3900–3923, doi:10.1002/2013JD020648, 2014.; Danilin, M. Y., Shia, R.-L., Ko, M. K. W., Weisenstein, D. K., Sze, N. D., Lamb, J. J., Smith, T. W., Lohn, P. D., and Prather, M. J.: Global stratospheric effects of the alumina emissions by solid-fueled rocket motors, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 12727–12738, 2001.; De Richter, R. and Caillol, S.: Fighting global warming: the potential of photocatalysis against CO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs, tropospheric O3, BC and other major contributors to climate change, J. Photoch. Photobio. C, 12, 1–19, doi:10.1016/j.jphotochemrev.2011.05.002, 2011.; Dvortsov, V. L., Geller, M. A., Yudin, V. A., and Smyshlyaev, S. P.: Parameterization of the convective transport in a two-dimensional chemistry-transport model and its validation with radon 222 and other tracer simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 22047–22062, doi:10.1029/98JD02084, 1998.; Ferraro, A. J., Highwood, E. J., and Charlton-Oerez, A. J.: Stratospheric heating by potential geoengineering aerosols, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L24706, doi:10.1029/2011GL049761, 2011.; Filippov, A. V., Zurita, M., and Rosner, D. E.: Fractal-like aggregates: relation between morphology and physical properties, J. Colloid Interf. Sci., 229, 261–273, 2000.; Fleming, E. L., Jackman, C. H., Stolarski, R. S., and Considine, D. B.: Simulation of stratospheric tracers using an improved empirically-based two-dimensional model transport formulation, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 23911–23934, 1999.; Hamill, P., Jensen, E. J., Russell, P, B., and Bauman, J. J.: The life cycle of stratospheric aerosol particles, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 1395–1410, 1997.; Heckendorn, P., Weisenstein, D., Fueglistaler, S., Luo, B. P., Rozanov, E., Schraner, M., Thomason, L. W., and Peter, T.: The impact of geoengineering aerosols on stratospheric temperature and ozone, Environ. Res. Lett., 4, 045108, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/4/4/045108, 2009.; Hinklin, T., Toury, B., Gervais, C., Babonneau, F., Gislason, J. J., Morton, R. W., and Laine, R. M.: Liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis of metalloorganic and inorganic alumina sources in the production of nanoalumina powders, Chem. Mater., 16, 21–30

 

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