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A 50% Increase in the Amount of Terrestrial Particles Delivered by the MacKenzie River Into the Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic Ocean) Over the Last 10 Years : Volume 12, Issue 1 (07/01/2015)

By Doxaran, D.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003981224
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 40
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: A 50% Increase in the Amount of Terrestrial Particles Delivered by the MacKenzie River Into the Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic Ocean) Over the Last 10 Years : Volume 12, Issue 1 (07/01/2015)  
Author: Doxaran, D.
Volume: Vol. 12, Issue 1
Language: English
Subject: Science, Biogeosciences, Discussions
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2015
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Devred, E., Babin, M., & Doxaran, D. (2015). A 50% Increase in the Amount of Terrestrial Particles Delivered by the MacKenzie River Into the Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic Ocean) Over the Last 10 Years : Volume 12, Issue 1 (07/01/2015). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche, UMR7093 CNRS-UPMC, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France. Global warming has a significant impact at the regional scale on the Arctic Ocean and surrounding coastal zones (i.e., Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Norway and Russia). The recent increase in air temperature has resulted in increased precipitations along the drainage basins of Arctic Rivers. It has also directly impacted land and seawater temperatures with the consequence of melting the permafrost and sea-ice. An increase in freshwater discharge by main Arctic rivers has been clearly identified in time series of field observations. The freshwater discharge of the Mackenzie River has increased by 25% since 2003. This may have increased the mobilization and transport of various dissolved and particulate substances, including organic carbon, as well as their export to the ocean. The release from land to the ocean of such organic material, which was sequestered as frozen since the last glacial maximum, may significantly impact the Arctic Ocean carbon cycle as well as marine ecosystems.

In this study we use 11 years of ocean-colour satellite data and field observations collected in 2009 to estimate the amount of terrestrial suspended solids and particulate organic carbon delivered by the Mackenzie River into the Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean). Our results show that during the summer period the concentration of suspended solids at the river mouth, in the delta zone and in the river plume has increased by 46, 71 and 33%, respectively, since 2003. Combined with the variations observed in the freshwater discharge, this corresponds to a more than 50% increase in the particulate (terrestrial suspended particles and organic carbon) export from the Mackenzie River into the Beaufort Sea.


Summary
A 50% increase in the amount of terrestrial particles delivered by the Mackenzie River into the Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic Ocean) over the last 10 years

Excerpt
Bates, N. R. and Mathis, J. T.: The Arctic Ocean marine carbon cycle: evaluation of air–sea CO2 exchanges, ocean acidification impacts and potential feedbacks, Biogeosciences, 6, 2433–2459, doi:10.5194/bg-6-2433-2009, 2009.; Bélanger S., Ehn, J., and Babin, M.: Impact of sea ice on the retrieval of water-leaving reflectance, chlorophyll a concentration and inherent optical properties from satellite Ocean Color data, Remote Sens. Environ., 111, 51–68, 2007.; Dai, A., Qian, T., Trenberth, K. E., and Milliman, J. D.: Changes in continental freshwater discharge from 1949–2004, J. Climate, 22, 2773–2791, 2009.; Arrigo, K. R., van Dijken, G., and Pabi, S.: Impact of a shrinking Arctic ice cover on marine primary production, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L19603, doi:10.1029/2008GL035028, 2008.; Arrigo, K. R., Perovich, D. K., Pickart, R. S., Brown, Z. W., van Dijken, G. L., Lowry, K. E., Mills, M. M., Palmer, M. A., Balch, W. M., Bahr, F., Bates, N. R., Benitez-Nelson, C., Bowler, B., Brownlee, E., Ehn, J. K., Frey, K. E., Garley, R., Laney, S. R., Lubelczyk, L., Mathis, J., Matsuoka, A., Mitchell, B. G., Moore, G. W. K., Ortega-Retuerta, E., Pal, S., Polashenski, C. M., Reynolds, R. A., Scheiber, B., Sosik, H. M., Stephens, M., and Swift, J. H.: Massive phytoplankton blooms under Arctic sea ice, Science, 336, 1408, doi:10.1126/science.1215065, 2012.; Carmack, E. C. and Macdonald, W. R.: Oceanography of the Canadian shelf of the Beaufort Sea: a setting for marine life, Arctic, 55, 29–45, 2002.; Doxaran, D., Froidefond, J. M., Lavender, S. J., and Castaing, P.: Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations, Remote Sens. Environ., 81, 149–161, 2002.; Doxaran, D., Froidefond, J. M., Castaing, P., and Babin, M.: Dynamics of the turbidity maximum zone in a macrotidal estuary (the Gironde, France): observations from field and MODIS satellite data, Estuar. Coast. Shelf S., 81, 321–332, 2009.; Doxaran, D., Ehn, J., Bélanger, S., Matsuoka, A., Hooker, S., and Babin, M.: Optical characterisation of suspended particles in the Mackenzie River plume (Canadian Arctic Ocean) and implications for ocean colour remote sensing, Biogeosciences, 9, 3213–3229, doi:10.5194/bg-9-3213-2012, 2012.; Ehn, J. K., Reynolds, R. A., Stramski, D., Doxaran, D., and Babin, M.: Forced variability in suspended particulate matter patterns across the Canadian Beaufort Sea continental margin, Biogeosciences, submitted, 2014.; Eisma, D., Bernard, P., Cade'e, G. C., Ittekkot, V., Kalf, J., Lanne, R., Martin, J. M., Mook, W. G., Put, A., and Schuhmacher, T.: Suspended matter particle size in some West-European estuaries: Part II. A review on floc formation and break up, Neth. J. Sea Res., 28, 215–220, 1991.; Forest, A., Babin, M., Stemmann, L., Picheral, M., Sampei, M., Fortier, L., Gratton, Y., Bélanger, S., Devred, E., Sahlin, J., Doxaran, D., Joux, F., Ortega-Retuerta, E., Martín, J., Jeffrey, W. H., Gasser, B., and Carlos Miquel, J.: Ecosystem function and particle flux dynamics across the Mackenzie Shelf (Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean): an integrative analysis of spatial variability and biophysical forcings, Biogeosciences, 10, 2833–2866, doi:10.5194/bg-10-2833-2013, 2013.; Franz, B. A., Bailey, S. W., Werdell, P. J., and McClain, C. R.: Sensor independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry, Appl. Optics, 46, 5068–5082, 2007.; Hedges, J. I., Keil, R. G., and Benner, R.: What happens to terrestrial organic matter in the ocean?, Org. Biogeochem., 27, 195–212, 1997.; Keil, R. G., Mayer, L. M., Quay, P.

 

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