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Type-1 Echoes from the Mid-latitude E-region Ionosphere : Volume 15, Issue 7 (30/11/-0001)

By Haldoupis, C.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003982232
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 10
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Type-1 Echoes from the Mid-latitude E-region Ionosphere : Volume 15, Issue 7 (30/11/-0001)  
Author: Haldoupis, C.
Volume: Vol. 15, Issue 7
Language: English
Subject: Science, Annales, Geophysicae
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Publication Date:
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications


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Schlegel, K., Farley, D. T., & Haldoupis, C. (-0001). Type-1 Echoes from the Mid-latitude E-region Ionosphere : Volume 15, Issue 7 (30/11/-0001). Retrieved from

Description: Physics Department, University of Crete, Iraklion, Greece. This paper presents more data on the properties of type-1 irregularities in the nighttime mid-latitude E-region ionosphere. The measurements were made with a 50-MHz Doppler radar system operating in Crete, Greece. The type-1 echoes last from several seconds to a few minutes and are characterized by narrow Doppler spectra with peaks corresponding to wave phase velocities of 250–350 m/s. The average velocity of 285 m/s is about 20% lower than nominal E-region ion-acoustic speeds, probably because of the presence of heavy metallic ions in the sporadic-E-layers that appear to be associated with the mid-latitude plasma instabilities. Sometimes the type-1 echoes are combined with a broad spectrum of type-2 echoes; at other times they dominate the spectrum or may appear in the absence of any type-2 spectral component. We believe these echoes are due to the modified two-stream plasma instability driven by a polarization electric field that must be larger than 10 mV/m. This field is similar in nature to the equatorial electrojet polarization field and can arise when patchy nighttime sporadic-E-layers have the right geometry.

Type-1 echoes from the mid-latitude E-Region ionosphere


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