World Library  

Add to Book Shelf
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Book

Closing the Dimethyl Sulfide Budget in the Tropical Marine Boundary Layer During the Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment : Volume 9, Issue 4 (14/08/2009)

By Conley, S. A.

Click here to view

Book Id: WPLBN0003983368
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 32
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Closing the Dimethyl Sulfide Budget in the Tropical Marine Boundary Layer During the Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment : Volume 9, Issue 4 (14/08/2009)  
Author: Conley, S. A.
Volume: Vol. 9, Issue 4
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Publication Date:
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications


APA MLA Chicago

Miller, G. H., Faloona, I., Blomquist, B., Bandy, A., Conley, S. A., & Lenschow, D. (2009). Closing the Dimethyl Sulfide Budget in the Tropical Marine Boundary Layer During the Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment : Volume 9, Issue 4 (14/08/2009). Retrieved from

Description: Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA, USA. Fourteen research flights were conducted with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) C-130 near Christmas Island (2° N, 157° W) during the summer of 2007 as part of the Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment (PASE). In order to tightly constrain the scalar budget of DMS, fluxes were measured at various levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) from near the surface (30 m) to the top of the mixed layer (500 m) providing greater accuracy of the flux divergence calculation in the DMS budget. The observed mean mole fraction of DMS in the MBL exhibited the well known diurnal cycle, ranging from 50 pptv in the daytime to 110 pptv at night. Contributions from horizontal advection are included using a multivariate regression of all DMS flight data from within the MBL to estimate the mean gradients and trends. With this technique we consider the residual term in the DMS budget as an estimate of overall photochemical oxidation. Error analysis of the various terms in the DMS budget indicate that chemical losses acting on time scales of up to 110 h can be inferred with this technique. On average, photochemistry accounted for 7.3 ppt hr−1 loss rate for the seven daytime flights, with an estimated error of 0.6 ppt/hr. The loss rate due to expected OH oxidation is sufficient to explain the net DMS destruction without invoking the action of additional oxidants (e.g. reactive halogens.) The observed ocean flux of DMS averaged 3.1 (±1.5)μmol m−2 d−1, and generally decreased throughout the sunlit hours. The average entrainment flux at the top of the MBL was 2.5 Μmol m−2 d−1; therefore the flux divergence term in the budget equation only contributed an average increase of 1.3 ppt hr−1 to the mean MBL mole fraction. Over the entire mission, the horizontal advection contribution to the overall budget was 0.2 ppt hr−1, indicating a mean atmospheric DMS gradient nearly perpendicular to the east-southeasterly trade winds and the chlorophyll gradient in the equatorial upwelling ocean. Nonetheless, horizontal advection was a significant term in the budget of any given flight, ranging from −1.5 to 2.3 ppt hr−1, indicating a patchy and random seawater DMS distribution, and thus needs to be accounted for in budget studies.

Closing the Dimethyl Sulfide Budget in the Tropical Marine Boundary Layer during the Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment

Bandy, A. R., Thornton, D. C., Tu, F. H., Blomquist, B. W., Nadler, W., Mitchell, G. M., and Lenschow, D. H.: Determination of the vertical flux of dimethyl sulfide by eddy correlation and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (apims), J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 107, 4743, doi:10.1029/2002jd002472, 2002.; Blomquist, B. H. B. and Fairall, C. W.: Determining the sea-air flux of dimethylsulfide by eddy correlation using mass spectrometry, Unpublished Manuscript, 2009.; Charlson, R. J., Lovelock, J. E., Andreae, M. O., and Warren, S. G.: Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulfur, cloud albedo and climate, Nature, 326, 655–661, 1987.; Blomquist, B. W., Fairall, C. W., Huebert, B. J., Kieber, D. J., and Westby, G. R.: Dms sea-air transfer velocity: Direct measurements by eddy covariance and parameterization based on the noaa/coare gas transfer model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L07601, doi:10.1029/2006gl025735, 2006.; Chen, G., Davis, D., Crawford, J., Heikes, B., O'Sullivan, D., Lee, M., Eisele, F., Mauldin, L., Tanner, D., Collins, J., Barrick, J., Anderson, B., Blake, D., Bradshaw, J., Sandholm, S., Carroll, M., Albercook, G., and Clarke, A.: An assessment of hox chemistry in the tropical pacific boundary layer: Comparison of model simulations with observations recorded during pem tropics a, J. Atmos. Chem., 38, 317–344, 2001.; Davis, D., Grodzinsky, G., Chen, G., Crawford, J., Eisele, F., Mauldin, L., Tanner, D., Cantrell, C., Brune, W., Tan, D., Faloona, I., Ridley, B., Montzka, D., Walega, J., Grahek, F., Sandholm, S., Sachse, G., Vay, S., Anderson, B., Avery, M., Heikes, B., Snow, J., O'Sullivan, D., Shetter, R., Lefer, B., Blake, D., Blake, N., Carroll, M., and Wang, Y.: Marine latitude/altitude oh distributions: Comparison of pacific ocean observations with models, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos, 106, 32691–32707, 2001.; De Bruyn, W. J., Dahl, E., and Saltzman, E. S.: Dms and so2 measurernents in the tropical marine boundary layer, J. Atmos. Chem., 53, 145–154, doi:10.1007/s10874-005-9000-z, 2006.; Faloona, I., Lenschow, D. H., Campos, T., Stevens, B., van Zanten, M., Blomquist, B., Thornton, D., Bandy, A., and Gerber, H.: Observations of entrainment in eastern pacific marine stratocumulus using three conserved scalars, J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 3268–3285, 2005.; Jonker, H. J. J., Duynkerke, P. G., and Cuijpers, J. W. M.: Mesoscale fluctuations in scalars generated by boundary layer convection, J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 801–808, 1999.; Kaimal, J. C., Izumi, Y., Wyngaard, J. C., and Cote, R.: Spectral characteristics of surface-layer turbulence, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 98, 563–589, 1972.; Kowalski, A. S. and Serrano-Ortiz, P.: On the relationship between the eddy covariance, the turbulent flux, and surface exchange for a trace gas such as co2, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol, 124, 129–141, doi:10.1007/s10546-007-9171-z, 2007.; Lucas, D. D. and Prinn, R. G.: Mechanistic studies of dimethylsulfide oxidation products using an observationally constrained model, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 107(26), 4201, ACH12–1–26, doi:10.1029/2001jd000843, 2002.; Nowak, J. B., Davis, D. D., Chen, G., Eisele, F. L., Mauldin, R. L., Tanner, D. J., Cantrell, C., Kosciuch, E., Bandy, A., Thornton, D., and Clarke, A.: Airborne observations of dmso, dms, and oh at marine tropical latitudes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2201–2204, 2001.; Sander, S. E. A.: Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in atmospheric studies, JPL Publication, 06, 26, 2006.; Pandis, S. N., Russell, L. M., and Seinfeld, J. H.: The relationship between dms flux and ccn concentration in remote marine regions, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 99, 16945–16957, 1994.; Russell, L. M., Lenschow, D. H., Laursen, K. K., Krummel, P. B., Siems, S. T., Bandy, A. R., Thornton, D. C., and Bates, T. S.: Bidirectional mixing in an ace 1 marine boundary layer overlain by a second turbulent layer, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 103, 16411–16432, 1998.; Simo, R. and Dachs, J.: Global ocean emission of dimethylsulfide predicted fr


Click To View

Additional Books

  • Technical Note: Swift – a Fast Semi-empi... (by )
  • Long Term Measurements of Sulfur Dioxide... (by )
  • Intercomparison and Evaluation of Aeroso... (by )
  • Comparison of Mixed Layer Heights from A... (by )
  • Multi-year (2004–2008) Record of Nonmeth... (by )
  • Wavelength and NoX Dependent Complex Ref... (by )
  • Modeling Iodide – Iodate Speciation in A... (by )
  • Technical Note: Intercomparison of Forma... (by )
  • Nitrous Oxide Emissions from the Arabian... (by )
  • Evaluated Kinetic and Photochemical Data... (by )
  • Online-coupled Meteorology and Chemistry... (by )
  • Optimal Estimation of the Surface Fluxes... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.