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Critical Loads of Nitrogen Deposition and Critical Levels of Atmospheric Ammonia for Semi-natural Mediterranean Evergreen Woodlands : Volume 9, Issue 3 (28/03/2012)

By Pinho, P.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003984975
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 11
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Critical Loads of Nitrogen Deposition and Critical Levels of Atmospheric Ammonia for Semi-natural Mediterranean Evergreen Woodlands : Volume 9, Issue 3 (28/03/2012)  
Author: Pinho, P.
Volume: Vol. 9, Issue 3
Language: English
Subject: Science, Biogeosciences
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2012
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

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Branquinho, C., Pinho, P., Cruz, C., Martins-Loução, M. A., Máguas, C., Theobald, M. R.,...Sutton, M. (2012). Critical Loads of Nitrogen Deposition and Critical Levels of Atmospheric Ammonia for Semi-natural Mediterranean Evergreen Woodlands : Volume 9, Issue 3 (28/03/2012). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, Centre for Environmental Biology, Lisboa, Portugal. Nitrogen (N) has emerged in recent years as a key factor associated with global changes, with impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning and human health. In order to ameliorate the effects of excessive N, safety thresholds such as critical loads (deposition fluxes) and levels (concentrations) can be established. Few studies have assessed these thresholds for semi-natural Mediterranean ecosystems. Our objective was therefore to determine the critical loads of N deposition and long-term critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for semi-natural Mediterranean evergreen woodlands. We have considered changes in epiphytic lichen communities, one of the most sensitive comunity indicators of excessive N in the atmosphere. Based on a classification of lichen species according to their tolerance to N we grouped species into response functional groups, which we used as a tool to determine the critical loads and levels. This was done for a Mediterranean climate in evergreen cork-oak woodlands, based on the relation between lichen functional diversity and modelled N deposition for critical loads and measured annual atmospheric ammonia concentrations for critical levels, evaluated downwind from a reduced N source (a cattle barn). Modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and annual atmospheric ammonia concentration showed the critical level to be below 1.9 μg m<sup>−3, in agreement with recent studies for other ecosystems. Modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and N deposition showed that the critical load was lower than 26 kg (N) ha−1 yr−1, which is within the upper range established for other semi-natural ecosystems. Taking into account the high sensitivity of lichen communities to excessive N, these values should aid development of policies to protect Mediterranean woodlands from the initial effects of excessive N.

Summary
Critical loads of nitrogen deposition and critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for semi-natural Mediterranean evergreen woodlands

Excerpt
Adrizal, A., Patterson, P. H., Hulet, R. M., Bates, R. M., Myers, C. A. B., Martin, G., Shockey, R. L., Van der Grinten, M., Anderson, D. A., and Thompson, J. R.: Vegetative Buffers for Fan Emissions from Poultry Farms: 2. Ammonia, Dust and Foliar Nitrogen, J. Environ. Sci. Health Part B-Pestic. Contam. Agric. Wastes, 43, 96–103, 2008.; Blondel, J. and Aronson, J.: Biology and Wildlife of the Mediterranean Region, Oxford University Press, New York, 1999.; Aragon, G., Martinez, I., Izquierdo, P., Belinchon, R., and Escudero, A.: Effects of Forest Management on Epiphytic Lichen Diversity in Mediterranean Forests, Appl. Veg. Sci., 13, 183–194, 2010.; Asta, J., Erhardt, W., Ferretti, M., Fornasier, F., Kirschbaum, U., Nimis, P.L., Purvis, O. W., Pirintsos, S., Scheidegger, C., van Haluwyn, C., and Wirth, V.: Mapping Lichen Diversity as an Indicator of Environmental Quality, in: Monitoring with Lichens- Monitoring Lichens, edited by: Nimis, P. L., Scheidegger, C., and Wolseley P. A., Kluwer Academic Publisher, 2002.; Augusto, S., Maguas, C., Matos, J., Pereira, M. J., Soares, A., and Branquinho, C.: Spatial Modeling of Pahs in Lichens for Fingerprinting of Multisource Atmospheric Pollution, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 7762–7769, 2009.; Bobbink, R., Hicks, K., Galloway, J., Spranger, T., Alkemade, R., Ashmore, M., Bustamante, M., Cinderby, S., Davidson, E., Dentener, F., Emmett, B., Erisman, J:W., Fenn, M., Gilliam, F., Nordin, A., Pardo, L., and De Vries, W.: Global Assessment of Nitrogen Deposition Effects on Terrestrial Plant Diversity: A Synthesis, Ecol. Appl., 20, 30–59, 2010.; Erisman, J. W., Sutton, M. A., Galloway, J., Klimont, Z., and Winiwarter, W.: How a Century of Ammonia Synthesis Changed the World, Nat. Geosci., 1, 636–639, 2008.; Bobbink, R., Braun, S., Nordin, A., Power, S., Schütz, K., Strengbom, J., Weijters, M., and Tomassen, M.: Review and Revision of Empirical Critical Loads and Dose-Response Relationships, Coordination Centre for Effects, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), The Netherlands, 2011.; Bonanomi, G., Caporaso, S., and Allegrezza, M.: Short-Term Effects of Nitrogen Enrichment, Litter Removal and Cutting on a Mediterranean Grassland, Acta Oecol.-Int. J. Ecol., 30, 419–425, 2006.; Branquinho, C., Gaio-Oliveira, G., Augusto, S., Pinho, P., Maguas, C., and Correia, O.: Biomonitoring Spatial and Temporal Impact of Atmospheric Dust from a Cement Industry, Environ. Pollut., 151, 292–299, 2008.; Bugalho, M. N., Caldeira, M. C., Pereira, J. S., Aronson, J., and Pausas, J. G.: Mediterranean cork oak savannas require human use to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services, Front. Ecol. Environ., 9, 278–286, 2011.; Calvo, L., Alonso, I., Fernandez, A. J., and De Luis, E.: Short-Term Study of Effects of Fertilisation and Cutting Treatments on the Vegetation Dynamics of Mountain Heathlands in Spain, Plant Ecol., 179, 181–191, 2005.; Cape, J. N., van der Eerden, L. J., Sheppard, L. J., Leith, I. D., and Sutton, M. A.: Evidence for Changing the Critical Level for Ammonia, Environ. Pollut., 157, 1033–1037, 2009.; Cruz, C. and Martins-Loução, M. A.: Determination of Ammonium Concentrations in Soils and Plant Extracts, in: Nitrogen in a Sustainable Ecosystem: From the Cell to the Plant, edited by: Martins-Loução M. A. and Lips, S.H., Backhuys Publishers, 2000.; Davies, E. D., Moss, D., and Hill, M. O.: Eunis Habitat Classification Revised, European Environment Agency, European topic centre on nature protection and biodiversity, 2004.; EEA, European Environment Agency: Emep/Corinair Emission Inventory Guidebook, 2007.; Dias, T., Malveiro, S., Martins-Loucao, M. A., Sheppard, L. J., and Cruz, C.: Linking N-Driven Biodiversity Changes with Soil N Availability in a Mediterranean Ecosystem, Plant Soil, 341, 125–136, 2011.; Dragosits, U., Theobald, M. R., Place, C. J., Lord, E., Webb, J., Hill, J., ApSimon, H. M., and Sutton, M. A.: Ammonia Emission, Deposition and Impact Assessment at the Field


 

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