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Multi-year Objective Analyses of Warm Season Ground-level Ozone and Pm2.5 Over North America Using Real-time Observations and Canadian Operational Air Quality Models : Volume 13, Issue 5 (28/05/2013)

By Robichaud, A.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003987567
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 69
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Multi-year Objective Analyses of Warm Season Ground-level Ozone and Pm2.5 Over North America Using Real-time Observations and Canadian Operational Air Quality Models : Volume 13, Issue 5 (28/05/2013)  
Author: Robichaud, A.
Volume: Vol. 13, Issue 5
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2013
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Ménard, R., & Robichaud, A. (2013). Multi-year Objective Analyses of Warm Season Ground-level Ozone and Pm2.5 Over North America Using Real-time Observations and Canadian Operational Air Quality Models : Volume 13, Issue 5 (28/05/2013). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, 2121 Trans-Canada Highway, Dorval (Québec), H9P1J3, Canada. We present multi-year objective analyses (OA) on a high spatio-temporal resolution (15 or 21 km, every hour) for the warm season period (1 May–31 October) for ground-level ozone (2002–2012) and for fine particulate matter (diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5)) (2004–2012). The OA used here combines the Canadian Air Quality forecast suite with US and Canadian surface air quality monitoring sites. The analysis is based on an optimal interpolation with capabilities for adaptive error statistics for ozone and PM2.5 and an explicit bias correction scheme for the PM2.5 analyses. The estimation of error statistics has been computed using a modified version of the Hollingsworth–Lönnberg's (H–L) method. Various quality controls (gross error check, sudden jump test and background check) have been applied to the observations to remove outliers. An additional quality control is applied to check the consistency of the error statistics estimation model at each observing station and for each hour. The error statistics are further tuned on the fly using a Χ2 (chi-square) diagnostic, a procedure which verifies significantly better than without tuning. Successful cross-validation experiments were performed with an OA set-up using 90% of observations to build the objective analysis and with the remainder left out as an independent set of data for verification purposes. Furthermore, comparisons with other external sources of information (global models and PM2.5 satellite surface derived measurements) show reasonable agreement. The multi-year analyses obtained provide relatively high precision with an absolute yearly averaged systematic error of less than 0.6 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) and 0.7 Μg m−3 (micrograms per cubic meter) for ozone and PM2.5 respectively and a random error generally less than 9 ppbv for ozone and under 12 Μg m−3 for PM2.5. In this paper, we focus on two applications: (1) presenting long term averages of objective analysis and analysis increments as a form of summer climatology and (2) analyzing long term (decadal) trends and inter-annual fluctuations using OA outputs. Our results show that high percentiles of ozone and PM2.5 are both following a decreasing trend overall in North America with the eastern part of United States (US) presenting the highest decrease likely due to more effective pollution controls. Some locations, however, exhibited an increasing trend in the mean ozone and PM2.5 such as the northwestern part of North America (northwest US and Alberta). The low percentiles are generally rising for ozone which may be linked to increasing emissions from emerging countries and the resulting pollution brought by the intercontinental transport. After removing the decadal trend, we demonstrate that the inter-annual fluctuations of the high percentiles are significantly correlated with temperature fluctuations for ozone and precipitation fluctuations for PM2.5. We also show that there was a moderately significant correlation between the inter-annual fluctuations of the high percentiles of ozone and PM2.5 with economic indices such as the Industrial Dow Jones and/or the US gross domestic product growth rate.

Summary
Multi-year objective analyses of warm season ground-level ozone and PM2.5 over North America using real-time observations and Canadian operational air quality models

Excerpt
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