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Precipitation Changes in the South American Altiplano Since 1300 Ad Reconstructed by Tree-rings : Volume 7, Issue 6 (12/12/2011)

By Morales, M. S.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003988009
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 38
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Precipitation Changes in the South American Altiplano Since 1300 Ad Reconstructed by Tree-rings : Volume 7, Issue 6 (12/12/2011)  
Author: Morales, M. S.
Volume: Vol. 7, Issue 6
Language: English
Subject: Science, Climate, Past
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2011
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

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Argollo, J., Villalba, R., Silva, J. S., Morales, M. S., Alvarez, C. A., Solíz, C.,...Llancabure, J. C. (2011). Precipitation Changes in the South American Altiplano Since 1300 Ad Reconstructed by Tree-rings : Volume 7, Issue 6 (12/12/2011). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), CCT-CONICET, C.C. 330, 5500 Mendoza, Argentina. During the second half of the 20th century, the Central Andes has experienced significant climatic and environmental changes characterized by a persistent warming trend, an increase in elevation of the 0 °C isotherm, and a sustained shrinkage of glaciers. These changes have occurred in conjunction with a steady growing demand for water resources. Given the short span of instrumental hidroclimatic records in this region, longer records are needed to understand the nature of climate variability and improve the predictability of precipitation, a key factor modulating the socio-economic development in the South American Altiplano and the adjacent arid lowlands. In this study we present the first quasi-millennial, tree-ring based precipitation reconstruction for the South American Altiplano. This annual (November–October) precipitation reconstruction is based on Polylepis tarapacana tree-ring series and represents the closest dendroclimatological record to the Equator in South America. This high-resolution reconstruction covers the past 707 yr and provides a unique record to characterize the occurrence of extreme events and consistent oscillations in precipitation, as well as to check the spatial and temporal stabilities of the teleconnections between rainfall in the Altiplano and hemispheric forcings such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Since the 1930s up to present a persistent negative trend in precipitation is recorded in the reconstruction, with the three driest years since 1300 AD occurring in the last 70 yr. The reconstruction contains a clear ENSO-like pattern at interannual to multicentennial time scales which determines inter-hemispheric linkages between our reconstruction and other precipitation-sensitive records modulated by ENSO in North America. Our reconstruction points out that century-scale dry periods are a recurrent feature in the Altiplano climate, and that the potential coupling of natural and anthropogenic-induced droughts in the future would have a severe impact on current socio-economical activities in the region. Water resource managers must anticipate these changes to adapt for future climate change, reduce vulnerability and provide water equitably to all users.

Summary
Precipitation changes in the South American Altiplano since 1300 AD reconstructed by tree-rings

Excerpt
Aceituno, P. and Montecinos, A.: Circulation anomalies associated with dry and wet periods in the South American Altiplano, in: Preprints 4th Int. Conf. on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography, Hobart, Australia, 29 March–2 April, 330–331, 1993.; Argollo, M., Solíz, C., and Villalba, R.: Potencialidad dendrocronológica de Polylepis tarapacana en los Andes centrales de Bolivia, Ecol. Bolivia, 39, 5–24, 2004.; Blasing, T. J., Solomon, A. M., and Duvick, D. N.: Response functions revisited, Tree-Ring Bull., 44, 1–15, 1984.; Binford, M. W., Kolata, A. L., Brenner, M., Janusek, J. W., Seddon, M. T., Abbott, M. B., and Jason, H.: Climate variation and the rise and fall of an Andean civilization, Quaternary Res., 47, 235–248, 1997.; Boninsegna, J. A., Argollo, J., Aravena, J. C., Barichivich, J., Christie, D. A., Ferrero, M. E., Lara, A., Le Quesne, C., Luckman, B. H., Masiokas, M., Morales, M. S., Oliveira, J. M., Roig, F., Srur, A., and Villalba, R.: Dendroclimatological reconstructions in South America: a review, Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 281, 210–228, 2009.; Boucher, É., Guiot, J., and Chapron, E.: A millennial multi-proxy reconstruction of summer PDSI for Southern South America, Clim. Past, 7, 957–974, doi:10.5194/cp-7-957-2011, 2011.; Bradley, R. S., Vuille, M., Hardy, D., and Thompson, L. G.: Low latitude ice cores record Pacific Sea surface temperatures, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1174, doi:10.1029/2002GL016546, 2003.; Bradley, R. S., Vuille, M., Diaz, H. F., and Vergara, W.: Threats to water supplies in the Tropical Andes, Science, 312, 1755–1756, 2006.; Braun, G.: The use of digital methods in assessing forest patterns in an Andean environment: the Polylepis example, Mt. Res. Dev., 17, 253–262, 1997.; Carrasco, J. F., Osorio, R., and Casassa, G.: Secular trend of the equilibrium-line altitude on the western side of the Southern Andes, derived from radiosonde and surface observations, J. Glaciol., 54, 538–550, 2008.; Christie, D. A., Lara, A., Barichivich, J., Villalba, R., Morales, M. S., and Cuq, E.: El Niño-southern oscillation signal in the world's high-elevation tree-ring chronologies from the Altiplano, Central Andes, Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 281, 309–319, 2009.; Christie, D. A., Boninsegna, J. A., Cleaveland, M. K., Lara, A., Le-Quesne, C., Morales, M. S., Mudelsee, M., Stahle, D., and Villalba. R.: Aridity changes in the temperate-mediterranean transition of the Andes since AD 1346 reconstructed from tree-rings, Clim. Dynam., 36, 1505–1521, 2011.; COCHILCO: Copper and other mineral statistics 1987–2006, Comisión Chilena del Cobre, Gobierno de Chile, Santiago, Chile, 2007.; Cook, E. R.: A time series analysis approach to tree-ring standardization. Ph.D. thesis, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 171 pp., 1985.; Cook, E. R., Briffa, K. R., Shiyatov, S., and Mazepa, V.: Tree ring standardization and growth-trend estimation, in: Methods of Dendrochronology: Applications in the

 

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