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Constraining the Co2 Budget of the Corn Belt: Exploring Uncertainties from the Assumptions in a Mesoscale Inverse System : Volume 11, Issue 7 (22/07/2011)

By Lauvaux, T.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003991382
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 44
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Constraining the Co2 Budget of the Corn Belt: Exploring Uncertainties from the Assumptions in a Mesoscale Inverse System : Volume 11, Issue 7 (22/07/2011)  
Author: Lauvaux, T.
Volume: Vol. 11, Issue 7
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2011
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany

Citation

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Richardson, S., Uliasz, M., Schuh, A. E., Andrews, A. E., Martins, D., Davis, K. J.,...Diaz, L. I. (2011). Constraining the Co2 Budget of the Corn Belt: Exploring Uncertainties from the Assumptions in a Mesoscale Inverse System : Volume 11, Issue 7 (22/07/2011). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, Inversity Park, Pennsylvania, USA. We performed an atmospheric inversion of the CO2 fluxes over Iowa and the surrounding states, from June to December 2007, at 20 km resolution and weekly timescale. Eight concentration towers were used to constrain the carbon balance in a 1000 × 1000 km2 domain in this agricultural region of the US upper midwest. The CO2 concentrations of the boundaries derived from CarbonTracker were adjusted to match direct observations from aircraft profiles around the domain. The regional carbon balance ends up with a sink of 178 TgC±35 TgC over the area for the period June–December, 2007. Potential bias from incorrect boundary conditions of about 0.4 ppm over the 7 months was corrected using mixing ratios from four different aircraft profile sites operated at a weekly time scale, acting as an additional source of uncertainty of 18 TgC. We used two different prior flux estimates, the SiBCrop model and the inverse flux product from the CarbonTracker system. We show that inverse flux estimates using both priors converge to similar posterior estimates (10 TgC difference), in our reference inversion, but some spatial structures from the prior fluxes remain in the posterior fluxes, revealing the importance of the prior flux resolution and distribution despite the large amount of atmospheric data available. The retrieved fluxes were compared to eddy flux towers in the corn and grassland areas, revealing an improvement in the seasonal cycles between the two compared to the prior fluxes, despite large absolute differences due to representation errors. The uncertainty of 35 TgC (about 35 gC m2) was derived from the posterior uncertainty obtained with our reference inversion of about 25 to 30 TgC and from sensitivity tests of the assumptions made in the inverse system, for a mean carbon balance over the region of −178 TgC, slightly weaker than the reference. Because of the potential large bias (~20 TgC in this case) due to choice of background conditions, proportional to the surface but not to the regional flux, this methodology seems limited to regions with a large signal (sink or source), unless additional observations can be used to constrain the boundary inflow.

Summary
Constraining the CO2 budget of the corn belt: exploring uncertainties from the assumptions in a mesoscale inverse system

Excerpt
Ahmadov, R., Gerbig, C., Kretschmer, R., Koerner, S., Neininger, B., Dolman, A. J., and Sarrat, C.: Mesoscale covariance of transport and CO2 fluxes: Evidence from observations and simulations using the WRF-VPRM coupled atmosphere-biosphere model, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D22107, doi:10.1029/2007JD008552, 2007.; Baker, J. and Griffis, T.: Examining strategies to improve the carbon balance of corn/soybean agriculture using eddy covariance and mass balance techniques, Agri. Forest Meteorol., 128, 163–177, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.11.005, 2004.; Baker, D. F., Law, R. M., Gurney, K. R., Rayner, P., Peylin, P., Denning, A. S., Bousquet, P., Bruhwiler, L., Chen, Y.-H., Ciais, P., Fung, I. Y., Heimann, M., John, J., Maki, T., Maksyutov, S., Masarie, K., Prather, M., Pak, B., Taguchi, S., , and Zhu, Z.: TransCom 3 inversion intercomparison: Impact of transport model errors on the interannual variability of regional CO2 fluxes, 1988–2003, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 20, 439, doi:10.1029/2004GB002, 2007.; Bousquet, P., Peylin, P., Ciais, P., Quéré, C. L., Friedlingstein, P., and Tans, P. P.: Regional changes in carbon dioxide fluxes of land and oceans since 1980, Science, 290, 1342–1346, 2000.; Butler, M. P., Davis, K. J., Denning, A. S., and Kawa, S. R.: Using continental observations in global atmospheric inversions of CO2: North American carbon sources and sinks, Tellus B, 62(5), 550–572, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2010.00501.x, 2010.; Canadell, J. G., Le Quéré, C., Raupach, M. R., Field, C. B., Buitenhuis, E. T., Ciais, P., Conway, T. J., Gillett, N. P., Houghton, R. A., and Marland, G.: Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 104, 18866–18870, doi:10.1073/pnas.0702737104, 2007.; Carouge, C., Rayner, P. J., Peylin, P., Bousquet, P., Chevallier, F., and Ciais, P.: What can we learn from European continuous atmospheric CO2 measurements to quantify regional fluxes – Part 2: Sensitivity of flux accuracy to inverse setup, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 3119–3129, doi:10.5194/acp-10-3119-2010, 2010.; Chen, F. and Dudhia, J.: Coupling an advanced land surface-hydrology model with the PennState-NCAR MM5 modelling system. Part1: model implementation and sensitivity, Mon. Weather Rev., 129, 569–585, 2001.; Chevallier, F., Viovy, N., Reichstein, M., and Ciais, P.: On the assignment of prior errors in Bayesian inversions of {CO}2 surface fluxes, Geophys. Res. Let., 33, L13802, doi:10.1029/2006GL026496, 2006.; Chevallier, F., Ciais, P., Conway, T. J., Aalto, T., Anderson, B. E., Bousquet, P., Brunke, E. G., Ciattaglia, L., Esaki, Y., Frohlich, M., Gomez, A., Gomez-Palaez, A. J., Haszpra, L., Krummel, P. B., Langenfelds, R., Leuenberger, M., Machida, T., Maignan, F., Matsueda, H., Morgui, J. A., Mukai, H., Nakazawa, T., Peylin, P., Ramonet, M., Rivier, L., Sawa, Y., Schmidt, M., Steele, P., Vay, S. A., Vermeulen, A. T., Wofsy, S. C., and Worthy, D.: CO2 surface fluxes at grid point scale estimated from a global 21-year reanalysis of atmospheric measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D2130

 

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