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Atmospheric Diurnal and Semi-diurnal Variations Observed with Gps Radio Occultation Soundings : Volume 9, Issue 6 (26/11/2009)

By Xie, F.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003992101
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 33
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Atmospheric Diurnal and Semi-diurnal Variations Observed with Gps Radio Occultation Soundings : Volume 9, Issue 6 (26/11/2009)  
Author: Xie, F.
Volume: Vol. 9, Issue 6
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2009
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany

Citation

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Ao, C. O., Mannucci, A. J., Wu, D. L., & Xie, F. (2009). Atmospheric Diurnal and Semi-diurnal Variations Observed with Gps Radio Occultation Soundings : Volume 9, Issue 6 (26/11/2009). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA. Diurnal and semi-diurnal variations, driven by solar forcing, are two fundamental modes in the Earth's weather and climate system. Radio occultation (RO) measurements from the six COSMIC satellites (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology Ionosphere and Climate) provide rather uniform global coverage with high vertical resolution, all-weather and diurnal sampling capability. This paper analyzes the diurnal and semi-diurnal variations of both temperature and refractivity from two-year (2007–2008) COSMIC RO measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere. The RO observations reveal both propagating and trapped vertical structures of diurnal and semi-diurnal variations, including transition regions near the tropopause where data with high vertical resolution are critical. In the tropics the diurnal amplitude in refractivity decreases with altitude from a local maximum in the planetary boundary layer and reaches the minimum around 14 km and then further increase amplitude in the stratosphere. The upward propagating component of the migrating diurnal tides in the tropics is clearly captured by the GPS RO measurements, which show a downward progression in phase from upper troposphere to the stratopause with a vertical wavelength of about 25 km. Below 500 hPa (~5.5 km), seasonal variations of the peak diurnal amplitude in the tropics follow the solor forcing change in latitude, while at 30 km the seasonal pattern reverses with the diurnal amplitude peaking at the opposite side of the equator relative to the solar forcing. Polar regions shows large diurnal variations in the stratosphere with strong seasonal variations and the cause(s) of these variations require further investigations.

Summary
Atmospheric diurnal and semi-diurnal variations observed with GPS radio occultation soundings

Excerpt
Anthes, R. A., Bernhardt, P. A., Chen, Y., et al.: The COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 mission early results, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 89(1), 313–333, doi:10.1175/BAMS-89-3-313, 2008.; Ao, C. O., Meehan, T. K., Hajj, G. A., Mannucci, A. J., and Beyerle, G.: Lower-troposphere refractivity bias in GPS occultation retrievals, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D18), 4577, doi:10.1029/2002JD003216, 2003.; Ao, C. O.: Effect of ducting on radio occultation measurements: An assessment based on high-resolution radiosonde soundings, Radio Sci., 42, RS2008, doi:10.1029/2006RS003485, 2007.; Ao, C. O., Hajj, G. A., Meehan, T. K., Dong, D., Iijima, B. A., Mannucci, A. J., and Kursinski, E. R.: Rising and setting GPS occultations by use of open-loop tracking, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D04101, doi:10.1029/2008JD010483, 2009.; Betts, A. K. and Jakob, C.: Evaluation of the diurnal cycle of precipitation, surface thermodynamics, and surface fluxes in the ECMWF model using LBA data, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D20), 8045, doi:10.1029/ 2001JD000427, 2002.; Beyerle, G., Gorbunov, M., and Ao, C. O.: Simulation studies of GPS radio occultation measurements, Radio Sci., 38(5), 1084, doi:10.1029/2002RS002800, 2003.; Chapman, S. and Lindzen, R. S.: Atmospheric Tides Thermal and Gravitational, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland, 200 pp., 1970.; Chung, E. S., Sohn, B. J., Schmetz, J., and Koenig, M.: Diurnal variation of upper tropospheric humidity and its relations to convective activities over tropical Africa, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 2489–2502, 2007.; Dai, A.: Recent Changes in the Diurnal Cycle of Precipitation Over the United States, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(1), 341–344, 1999.; Dai, A. and Deser, C.: Diurnal and semidiurnal variations in global surface wind and divergence fields, J. Geophys. Res., 104(D24), 31109–31125, 1999.; Dai, A., Giorgi, F., and Trenberth, K.: Observed and model-simulated diurnal cycles of precipitation over the contiguous United States, J. Geophys. Res., 104(D6), 6377–6402, 1999.; Dai, A.: Global precipitation and thunderstorm frequencies, Part II: Diurnal variations, J. Climate, 14, 1112–1128, 2001.; Dai, A. and Trenberth, K. E.: The diurnal cycle and its depiction in the Community Climate System Model, J. Climate, 17, 930–951, 2004.; Dai, A., Wang, J. H., Ware, R. H., and Hove, T. V.: Diurnal variation in water vapor over North America and its implications for sampling errors in radiosonde humidity, J. Geophys. Res, 107(D10), 4090, doi:10.1029/2001JD000642, 2002.; Hagan, M. E. and Forbes, J. M.: Migrating and nonmigrating diurnal tides in the middle and upper atmosphere excited by tropospheric latent heat release, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D24), 4754, doi:10.1029/2001JD001236, 2002.; Hajj, G. A., Kursinski, E. R., Romans, L. J., Bertiger, W. I., and Leroy, S. S.: A technical description of atmospheric sounding by GPS occultation, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phy., 64(2), 451–469, 2002.; Hays, P. B., Wu, D. L., and HRDI Science Team: Observations of the diurnal tide from space, J. Atmos. Sci., 51(20), 3077–3093, 1994.; Healy, S. B. and Eyre, J. R.: Retrieving temperature, water vapour and surface pressure information from refractive index profiles derived by radio occultation: a simulation study, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 126, 1661–1683, 2000.; Ho, S.-P., Kirchengast, G., Leroy, S., et al.: Estimating the Uncertainty of using GPS Radio Occultation Data for Climate Monitoring: Inter-comparison of CHAMP Refractivity Climate Records 2002–2006 from Different Data Centers, J. Geophys. Res., in press, 2009.; Huang, C. M., Zhang, S. D., and Yi, F.: Intensive radiosonde observations of the diurnal tide and planetary waves in the lower atmosphere over Yichang (111°18´ E, 30°42´ N), China, Ann. Geophys., 27, 1079–1095, 2009.; Keckhut, P., Wild, J. D., Gelman, M., Miller, A. J., and Hauchecorne, A.: Investigations on long-term temperature changes in the upper stratosphere using lidar data and NCEP analyses, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D8), 7937–7944, 2001.; Kuo, Y. H.

 

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