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Assessment of Multi-decadal Wrf-cmaq Simulations for Understanding Direct Aerosol Effects on Radiation Brightening in the United States : Volume 15, Issue 13 (01/07/2015)

By Gan, C.-m.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003992267
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 32
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Assessment of Multi-decadal Wrf-cmaq Simulations for Understanding Direct Aerosol Effects on Radiation Brightening in the United States : Volume 15, Issue 13 (01/07/2015)  
Author: Gan, C.-m.
Volume: Vol. 15, Issue 13
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2015
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Hogrefe, C., Long, C. N., Xing, J., Wong, D., Wei, C., Gan, C.,...Gilliam, R. (2015). Assessment of Multi-decadal Wrf-cmaq Simulations for Understanding Direct Aerosol Effects on Radiation Brightening in the United States : Volume 15, Issue 13 (01/07/2015). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Atmospheric Modeling and Analysis Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. Multi-decadal simulations with the coupled WRF-CMAQ model have been conducted to systematically investigate the changes in anthropogenic emissions of SO2 and NOx over the past 21 years (1990–2010) across the United States (US), their impacts on anthropogenic aerosol loading over North America, and subsequent impacts on regional radiation budgets. In particular, this study attempts to determine the consequences of the changes in tropospheric aerosol burden arising from substantial reductions in emissions of SO2 and NOx associated with control measures under the Clean Air Act (CAA) especially on trends in solar radiation. Extensive analyses conducted by Gan et al. (2014) utilizing observations (e.g. SURFRAD, CASTNET, IMPROVE and ARM) over the past 16 years (1995–2010) indicate a shortwave (SW) radiation (both all-sky and clear-sky) brightening in the US. The relationship of the radiation brightening trend with decreases in the aerosol burden is less apparent in the western US. One of the main reasons for this is that the emission controls under the CAA were aimed primarily at reducing pollutants in areas violating national air quality standards, most of which were located in the eastern US while the relatively less populated areas in the western US were less polluted at the beginning of this study period. Comparisons of model results with observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD), aerosol concentration, and radiation demonstrate that the coupled WRF-CMAQ model is capable of replicating the trends well even through it tends to underestimate the AOD. In particular, the sulfate concentration predictions were well matched with the observations. The discrenpancies found in the clear-sky diffuse SW radiation are likely due to several factors such as potential increase of ice particles associated with increasing air traffic, the definition of clear-sky in the radiation retrieval methodology and aerosol semi-direct and/or indirect effects which cannot be readily isolated from the observed data.

Summary
Assessment of multi-decadal WRF-CMAQ simulations for understanding direct aerosol effects on radiation brightening in the United States

Excerpt
Augustine, J. A. and Dutton, E. G.: Variability of the surface radiation budget over the United States from 1996 through 2011 from high-quality measurements, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 43–53, doi:10.1029/2012JD018551, 2013.; Blanchard, C. L., Hidy, G. M., Tanenbaum, S., Edgerton, E. S., and Hartsell. B. E.: The Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) study: temporal trends in gas and PM concentrations and composition, 1999–2010, JAPCA J. Air Waste Ma., 63, 247–259, 2013.; Chin, M., Diehl, T., Tan, Q., Prospero, J. M., Kahn, R. A., Remer, L. A., Yu, H., Sayer, A. M., Bian, H., Geogdzhayev, I. V., Holben, B. N., Howell, S. G., Huebert, B. J., Hsu, N. C., Kim, D., Kucsera, T. L., Levy, R. C., Mishchenko, M. I., Pan, X., Quinn, P. K., Schuster, G. L., Streets, D. G., Strode, S. A., Torres, O., and Zhao, X.-P.: Multi-decadal aerosol variations from 1980 to 2009: a perspective from observations and a global model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3657–3690, doi:10.5194/acp-14-3657-2014, 2014.; Curci, G., Hogrefe, C. Bianconi, R., Im, U., Balzarini, A., Baró, R., Brunner, D., Forkel, R., Giordano, L., Hirtl, M., Honzak, L., Jiménez-Guerrero, P., Knote, C., Langer, M., Makar, P. A., Pirovano, G., Pérez, J. L., San José, R., Syrakov, D., Tuccella, P., Werhahn, J., Wolke, R., Žabkar, R., Zhang, J., and Galmarini, S.: Uncertainties of simulated aerosol optical properties induced by assumptions on aerosol physical and chemical properties: an AQMEII-2 perspective, Atmos. Environ., in press, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.09.009, 2014.; Gan, C.-M., Pleim, J., Mathur, R., Hogrefe, C., Long, C. N., Xing, J., Roselle, S., and Wei, C.: Assessment of the effect of air pollution controls on trends in shortwave radiation over the United States from 1995 through 2010 from multiple observation networks, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1701–1715, doi:10.5194/acp-14-1701-2014, 2014a.; Gan, C.-M., Binkowski, F., Pleim, J., Xing, J., Wong, D., Mathur, R., and Gilliam, R.: Assessment of the aerosol optics component of the coupled WRF-CMAQ model using CARES field campaign data and a single column model, Atmos. Environ., in press, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.11.028, 2014b.; Gerritsen, K. O.: Case Study on the Effect of Aircraft Induced Cloudiness on the Short Wave Solar Irradiance at the Land Surface, Internship report of Earth System Science (ESS-70433), Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, available at: http://publicaties.minienm.nl/documenten/case-study-on-the-effect-of-aircraft-induced-cloudiness-on-the-s (last access: 29 June 2015), June 2012.; Hand, J. L., Schichtel, B. A., Malm, W. C., and Pitchford, M. L.: Particulate sulfate ion concentration and SO2 emission trends in the United States from the early 1990s through 2010, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 10353–10365, doi:10.5194/acp-12-10353-2012, 2012.; Hand, J. L., Schichtel, B. A., Malm, W. C., and Frank, N. H.: Spatial and temporal trends in PM2.5 organic and elemental carbon across the United States, Adv. Meteorol., 2013, 367674, doi:10.1155/2013/367674, 2013.; Haywood, J. M., Allan, R. P., Bornemann, J., Forster, P. M., Francis, P. N., Milton, S., Rädel, G., Rap, A., Shine, K. P., and Thorpe, G.: A case study of the radiative forcing of persistent contrails evolving into contrail-induced cirrus, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D24201, doi:

 

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