World Library  

Add to Book Shelf
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Book

Lightning Characteristics Observed by a Vlf/Lf Lightning Detection Network (Linet) in Brazil, Australia, Africa and Germany : Volume 9, Issue 20 (20/10/2009)

By Höller, H.

Click here to view

Book Id: WPLBN0003995136
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 30
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Lightning Characteristics Observed by a Vlf/Lf Lightning Detection Network (Linet) in Brazil, Australia, Africa and Germany : Volume 9, Issue 20 (20/10/2009)  
Author: Höller, H.
Volume: Vol. 9, Issue 20
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Publication Date:
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications


APA MLA Chicago

Calheiros, R. V., Houngninou, E., Schmidt, K., Betz, H., Höller, H., May, P., & Scialom, G. (2009). Lightning Characteristics Observed by a Vlf/Lf Lightning Detection Network (Linet) in Brazil, Australia, Africa and Germany : Volume 9, Issue 20 (20/10/2009). Retrieved from

Description: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. This paper describes lightning characteristics as obtained in four sets of lightning measurements during recent field campaigns in different parts of the world from mid-latitudes to the tropics by the novel VLF/LF (very low frequency/low frequency) lightning detection network (LINET). The paper gives a general overview on the approach, and a synopsis of the statistical results for the observation periods as a whole and for one special day in each region. The focus is on the characteristics of lightning which can specifically be observed by this system like intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground stroke statistics, vertical distributions of intra-cloud strokes or peak current distributions. Some conclusions regarding lightning produced NOx are also presented as this was one of the aims of the tropical field campaigns TROCCINOX (Tropical Convection, Cirrus and Nitrogen Oxides Experiment) and TroCCiBras (Tropical Convection and Cirrus Experiment Brazil) in Brazil during January/February 2005, SCOUT-O3 (Stratospheric-Climate Links with Emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere) and TWP-ICE (Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment) during November/December 2005 and January/February 2006, respectively, in the Darwin area in N-Australia, and of AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) in W-Africa during June–November 2006.

Regional and temporal characteristics of lightning are found to be dependent on orographic effects (e.g. S-Germany, Brazil, Benin), land-sea breeze circulations (N-Australia) and especially the evolution of the monsoons (Benin, N-Australia). Large intra-seasonal variability in lightning occurrence was found for the Australian monsoon between the strong convection during build-up and break phases and the weak active monsoon phase with only minor lightning activity. Total daily lightning stroke rates can be of comparable intensity in all regions with the heaviest events found in Germany and N-Australia. The frequency of occurrence of such days was by far the largest in N-Australia. In accordance with radar observed storm structures, the intra-cloud stroke mean emission heights were found distinctly different in Germany (8 km) as compared to the tropics (up to 12 km in N-Australia). The fraction of intra-cloud strokes (compared to all strokes) was found to be relatively high in Brazil and Australia (0.83 and 0.82, respectively) as compared to Benin and Germany (0.64 and 0.69, respectively).

Using stroke peak currents and vertical location information, lightning NOx (LNOx) production under defined standard conditions can be compared for the different areas of observation. LNOx production per standard stroke was found to be most efficient for the N-Australian and S-German thunderstorms whereas the yield from Brazilian and W-African strokes was nearly 40% less. On the other hand, the main NO contribution in Brazil was from intra-cloud (IC) strokes whereas in Benin it was due to cloud-to-ground (CG) components. For the German and Australian strokes both stroke types contributed similar amounts to the total NO outcome.

Lightning characteristics observed by a VLF/LF lightning detection network (LINET) in Brazil, Australia, Africa and Germany

Finke, U. and Hauf, T.: The characteristics of lightning ocurrence in southern Germany, Contrib. Atmos. Phys., 69, 361–374, 1996.; Allen, G., Vaughan, G., Bower, K. N., et al.: Aerosol and trace-gas measurements in the Darwin area during the wet season, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D06306, doi:10.1029/2007JD008706, 2008.; Betz, H.-D., Schmidt, K., Oettinger, W. P., and Wirz, M.: Lightning Detection with 3D Discrimination of Intracloud and Cloud-to-Ground Discharges, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L11108, doi:10.1029/2004GL019821, 2004.; Betz, H.-D., Schmidt, K., Fuchs, B., Oettinger, W. P., and Höller, H.: Cloud Lightning: Detection and Utilization for Total Lightning Measured in the VLF/LF Regime, J. Light. Res., 2, 1–17, 2007.; Betz, H.-D., Marshall, T. C., Stolzenburg, M., Schmidt, K., Oettinger, W. P., Defer, E., Konarski, J., Laroche, P., and Dombai, F.: Detection of in-cloud lightning with VLF/LF and VHF networks for studies of the initial discharge phase, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L23802, doi:10.1029/2008GL035820, 2008.; Betz, H.-D., Schmidt, K., Laroche, P., Blanchet, P., Oettinger, W. P., Defer, E., Dziewit, Z., and Konarski, J.: LINET – An international lightning detection network in Europe, Atmos. Res., 91, 564–573, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2008.06.012, 2009.; Brunner, D., Siegmund, P., May, P. T., Chappel, L., Schiller, C., Müller, R., Peter, T., Fueglistaler, S., MacKenzie, A. R., Fix, A., Schlager, H., Allen, G., Fjaeraa, A. M., Streibel, M., and Harris, N. R. P.: The SCOUT-O3 Darwin Aircraft Campaign: rationale and meteorology, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 93–117, 2009.; Carey, L. D. and Rutledge, S. A.: The Relationship between Precipitation and Lightning in Tropical Island Convection: A C-Band Polarimetric Radar Study, Mon. Weather Rev., 128, 2687–2710, 2000.; Christian, H. J., Blakeslee, R. J., Boccippio, D. J., Boeck, W. L., Buechler, D. E., Driscoll, K. T., Goodman, S. J., Hall, J. M., Koshak, W. J., Mach, D. M., and Stewart, M. F.: Global frequency and distribution of lightning as observed from space by the Optical Transient Detector, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D1), 4005, doi:10.1029/2002JD002347, 2003.; Crutzen, P. J.: The influence of nitrogen oxides on the atmospheric ozone content, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 96, 320–327, 1970.; Carvalho, L. M. V., Jones, C., and Liebmann, B.: The South Atlantic Convergence Zone: Intensity, Form, Persistence, and Relationships with Intraseasonal to Interannual Activity and Extreme Rainfall, J. Climate, 17, 88–108, 2004.; Dye, J. E., Ridley, B. A., Skamarock, W., Barth, M., Venticinque, M., Defer, E., Blanchet, P., Thery, C., Laroche, P., Baumann, K., Hubler, G., Parrish, D. D., Ryerson, T., Trainer, M., Frost, G., Holloway, J. S., Matejka, T., Bartels, D., Fehsenfeld, F. C., Tuck, A., Rutledge, S. A., Lang, T., Stith, J., and Zerr, R.: An overview of the Stratospheric-Tropospheric Experiment – Radiation, Aerosols, and Ozone (STERAO)-Deep Convection experiment with results for the July 10, 1996 storm, J. Geophys. Res., 105(D8), 10023–10045, 2000.; Frederick, K. and Schumacher, C.: Anvil Characteristics as Seen by C-POL during the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE), Mon. Weather Rev., 136, 206–222, 2008.; Hagen, M., Bartenschlager, B., and Finke, U.: Motion characteristics of thunderstorms in southern Germany, Meteorol. Appl. 6, 227–239, 1999.; Höller, H., Finke, U., Huntrieser, H., Hagen, M., and Feigl, C.: Lightning produced NOx (LINOX) – Experimental design and case study results, J. Geophys. Res., 104(D11), 13911–13922, 1999.; Höller, H. and Schumann, U.: EULINOX – The European Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Project, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Köln, Germany, 240 pp., DLR-FB 2000-28, 2000.; Huntrieser, H., Schlager, H., Feigl, C., and Höller, H.: Transport and production of NOx in electrified thunderstorms: Survey of previous studies and new observations at midlatitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 28247–28264, 1998.; H


Click To View

Additional Books

  • Theory of Isotope Fractionation on Facet... (by )
  • The Relative Dispersion of Cloud Droplet... (by )
  • The Use of Smiles Data to Study Ozone Lo... (by )
  • A Coupled Observation – Modeling Approac... (by )
  • The Impact of Model Grid Zooming on Trac... (by )
  • A One-year Comprehensive Chemical Charac... (by )
  • Measurement of the Water Vapour Vertical... (by )
  • Hygroscopic Properties of Newly Formed U... (by )
  • Spectral Dependence of Aerosol Light Abs... (by )
  • Hygroscopicity of Secondary Organic Aero... (by )
  • Hygroscopic Properties of Ultrafine Aero... (by )
  • Sensitivity of the Recent Methane Budget... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.