World Library  


Add to Book Shelf
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Book

Bacteria in the Global Atmosphere – Part 2: Modeling of Emissions and Transport Between Different Ecosystems : Volume 9, Issue 23 (10/12/2009)

By Burrows, S. M.

Click here to view

Book Id: WPLBN0003995248
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 17
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Bacteria in the Global Atmosphere – Part 2: Modeling of Emissions and Transport Between Different Ecosystems : Volume 9, Issue 23 (10/12/2009)  
Author: Burrows, S. M.
Volume: Vol. 9, Issue 23
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2009
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Jöckel, P., Tost, H., Kerkweg, A., Burrows, S. M., Lawrence, M. G., Butler, T., & Pöschl, U. (2009). Bacteria in the Global Atmosphere – Part 2: Modeling of Emissions and Transport Between Different Ecosystems : Volume 9, Issue 23 (10/12/2009). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany. Bacteria are constantly being transported through the atmosphere, which may have implications for human health, agriculture, cloud formation, and the dispersal of bacterial species. We simulate the global transport of bacteria, represented as 1 μm and 3 μm diameter spherical solid particle tracers in a general circulation model. We investigate factors influencing residence time and distribution of the particles, including emission region, cloud condensation nucleus activity and removal by ice-phase precipitation. The global distribution depends strongly on the assumptions made about uptake into cloud droplets and ice. The transport is also affected, to a lesser extent, by the emission region, particulate diameter, and season. We find that the seasonal variation in atmospheric residence time is insufficient to explain by itself the observed seasonal variation in concentrations of particulate airborne culturable bacteria, indicating that this variability is mainly driven by seasonal variations in culturability and/or emission strength. We examine the potential for exchange of bacteria between ecosystems and obtain rough estimates of the flux from each ecosystem by using a maximum likelihood estimation technique, together with a new compilation of available observations described in a companion paper. Globally, we estimate the total emissions of bacteria-containing particles to the atmosphere to be 7.6×1023–3.5×1024 a−1, originating mainly from grasslands, shrubs and crops. We estimate the mass of emitted bacteria- to be 40–1800 Gg a−1, depending on the mass fraction of bacterial cells in the particles. In order to improve understanding of this topic, more measurements of the bacterial content of the air and of the rate of surface-atmosphere exchange of bacteria will be necessary. Future observations in wetlands, hot deserts, tundra, remote glacial and coastal regions and over oceans will be of particular interest.

Summary
Bacteria in the global atmosphere – Part 2: Modeling of emissions and transport between different ecosystems

Excerpt
Amato, P., Demeer, F., Melaouhi, A., Fontanella, S., Martin-Biesse, A.-S., Sancelme, M., Laj, P., and Delort, A.-M.: A fate for organic acids, formaldehyde and methanol in cloud water: their biotransformation by micro-organisms, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4159–4169, 2007.; Andreeva, I., Borodulin, A., Buryak, G., et al.: Biogenic Component of Atmospheric Aerosol in the South of West Siberia, Chem. Sust. Dev., 10, 523–537, 2002.; Andronache, C.: Estimated variability of below-cloud aerosol removal by rainfall for observed aerosol size distributions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 131–143, 2003.; Andronache, C.: Estimates of sulfate aerosol wet scavenging coefficient for locations in the Eastern United States, Atmos. Environ., 38, 795–804, 2004.; Ariya, P., Nepotchatykh, O., Ignatova, O., and Amyot, M.: Microbiological degradation of atmospheric organic compounds, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 2077, doi:10.1029/2002GL015637, 2002.; Bauer, H., Kasper-Giebl, A., Löflund, M., Giebl, H., Hitzenberger, R., Zibuschka, F., and Puxbaum, H.: The contribution of bacteria and fungal spores to the organic carbon content of cloud water, precipitation and aerosols, Atmos. Res., 64, 109–-119, doi:{10.1016/S0169-8095(02)00084-4}, 2002.; Gregory, P.: The microbiology of the atmosphere, Leonard Hill, Aylesbury, UK, 1973.; Griffin, D.: Clouds of desert dust and microbiology: a mechanism of global dispersion, Microbiol. Today, 32, 180–182, 2005.; Bauer, H., Giebl, H., Hitzenberger, R., Kasper-Giebl, A., Reischl, G., Zibuschka, F., and Puxbaum, H.: Airborne bacteria as cloud condensation nuclei, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4658, doi:{10.1029/2003JD003545}, 2003.; Burrows, S. M., Elbert, W., Lawrence, M., and Pöschl, U.: Bacteria in the global atmosphere: Part 1 – review and synthesis of literature data for different ecosystems, companion paper, 2009.; Caristi, J., Sands, D., and Georgakopoulos, D.: Simulation of epiphytic bacterial growth under field conditions, Simulation, 56, 295–301, 1991.; Dimmick, R., Wolochow, H., and Chatigny, M.: Evidence for more than one division of bacteria within airborne particles, Appl. Environ. Microb., 38, 642–643, 1979.; Elbert, W., Taylor, P. E., Andreae, M. O., and Pöschl, U.: Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4569–4588, 2007.; Enting, I.: Inverse Methods in Global Biogeochemical Cycles, chap. Green's function methods of tracer inversion, American Geophysical Union, 2000.; Franc, G. and DeMott, P.: Cloud activation characteristics of airborne {E}rwinia carotovora cells, J. Appl. Meteorol., 37, 1293–1300, 1998.; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Pickersgill, D. A., Després, V. R., and Pöschl, U.: High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 106, 12 814 – 12 819, doi:10.1073/pnas.0811003106, 2009.; Gallagher, M., Nemitz, E., Dorsey, J., Fowler, D., Sutton, M., Flynn, M., and Duyzer, J.: Measurements and parameterizations of small aerosol deposition velocities to grassland, arable crops, and forest: Influence of surface roughness length on deposition, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4154, doi:{10.1029/2001JD000817}, 2002.; Gay, D.: Usage summary for selected optimization routines, Computing Science Technical Report, AT&T Bell Laboratories, 1990.; Griffin, D., Garrison, V., Herman, J., and Shinn, E.: {A}frican desert dust in the {C}aribbean atmosphere: {M}icrobiology and public health, Aerobiologia, 17, 203–213, 2001a.; Griffin, D., Kellogg, C., and Shinn, E.: Dust in the wind: {L}ong range transport of dust in the atmosphere and its implications for global public and ecosystem health, Global Change and Human Health, 2, 20–33, 2001b.; Griffin, D., Westphal, D., and Gray, M.: Airborne microorganisms in the African desert dust corridor

 

Click To View

Additional Books


  • A Review of Biomass Burning Emissions Pa... (by )
  • Stationary Planetary Wave Propagation in... (by )
  • Diffusional and Accretional Growth of Wa... (by )
  • Measurements of the Aerosol Chemical Com... (by )
  • Primary Aerosol Emission Trends for Chin... (by )
  • A Multi-model Evaluation of Aerosols Ove... (by )
  • Cyclobutyl Methyl Ketone as a Model Comp... (by )
  • Quasi-biennial Oscillation of the Tropic... (by )
  • Evidence for a Co Increase in the Sh Dur... (by )
  • Technical Note: Evolution, Current Capab... (by )
  • Chemistry and Transport of Pollution Ove... (by )
  • Seven Years of Measurements of Aerosol S... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.