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Cloud-resolving Simulations of Mercury Scavenging and Deposition in Thunderstorms : Volume 13, Issue 2 (08/02/2013)

By Nair, U. S.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003996625
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 37
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Cloud-resolving Simulations of Mercury Scavenging and Deposition in Thunderstorms : Volume 13, Issue 2 (08/02/2013)  
Author: Nair, U. S.
Volume: Vol. 13, Issue 2
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2013
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

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Schure, A. T., Wu, Y., Walters, J. T., Holmes, C. D., Nair, U. S., & Kallos, G. (2013). Cloud-resolving Simulations of Mercury Scavenging and Deposition in Thunderstorms : Volume 13, Issue 2 (08/02/2013). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Department of Atmospheric Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Alabama 35805, USA. This study examines dynamical and microphysical features of convective clouds that affect mercury (Hg) wet scavenging and concentrations in rainfall. Using idealized numerical model simulations in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), we diagnose vertical transport and scavenging of soluble Hg species in thunderstorms under typical environmental conditions found in the Northeast and Southeast United States (US). Three important environmental characteristics that impact thunderstorm morphology were studied: convective available potential energy (CAPE), vertical shear (0–6 km) of horizontal wind (SHEAR) and precipitable water (PW).

We find that in a strong convective storm in the Southeast US that about 40% of mercury in the boundary layer (0–2 km) can be scavenged and deposited to the surface. Removal efficiencies are 35% or less in the free troposphere and decline with altitude. Nevertheless, if we assume that soluble Hg species are initially uniformly mixed vertically, then about 60% deposited mercury deposited by the thunderstorm originates in the free troposphere.

For a given CAPE, storm morphology and Hg deposition respond to SHEAR and PW. Experiments show that the response of mercury concentration in rainfall to SHEAR depends on the amount of PW. For low PW, increasing SHEAR decreases mercury concentrations in high-rain amounts (>13 mm). However, at higher PW values, increasing SHEAR decreases mercury concentrations for all rainfall amounts. These experiments suggest that variations in environmental characteristics relevant to thunderstorm formation and evolution can also contribute to geographical difference in wet deposition of mercury.

An ensemble of thunderstorm simulations was also conducted for different combinations of CAPE, SHEAR and PW values derived from radiosonde observations at five sites in the Northeast United States (US) and at three sites in the Southeast US. Using identical initial concentrations of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and particle-bound mercury (HgP), from the GEOS-Chem model, the simulations predict higher mercury concentrations in rainfall from thunderstorms forming in the environmental conditions over the Southeast US compared to the Northeast US.

Mercury concentrations in rainfall are also simulated for a typical stratiform rain event and found to be less than in thunderstorms forming in environments typical of the Southeast US. The stratiform cloud scavenges mercury from the lower ~4 km of the atmosphere, while thunderstorms scavenge up to ~10 km.


Summary
Cloud-resolving simulations of mercury scavenging and deposition in thunderstorms

Excerpt
Amos, H. M., Jacob, D. J., Holmes, C. D., Fisher, J. A., Wang, Q., Yantosca, R. M., Corbitt, E. S., Galarneau, E., Rutter, A. P., Gustin, M. S., Steffen, A., Schauer, J. J., Graydon, J. A., Louis, V. L. St., Talbot, R. W., Edgerton, E. S., Zhang, Y., and Sunderland, E. M.: Gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric Hg(II) and its effect on global mercury deposition, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 591–603, doi:10.5194/acp-12-591-2012, 2012.; Barth, M. C., Kim, S.-W., Wang, C., Pickering, K. E., Ott, L. E., Stenchikov, G., Leriche, M., Cautenet, S., Pinty, J.-P., Barthe, Ch., Mari, C., Helsdon, J. H., Farley, R. D., Fridlind, A. M., Ackerman, A. S., Spiridonov, V., and Telenta, B.: Cloud-scale model intercomparison of chemical constituent transport in deep convection, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4709–4731, doi:10.5194/acp-7-4709-2007, 2007.; Coburn, S., Dix, B., Sinreich, R., and Volkamer, R.: The CU ground MAX-DOAS instrument: characterization of RMS noise limitations and first measurements near Pensacola, FL of BrO, IO, and CHOCHO, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 2421–2439, doi:10.5194/amt-4-2421-2011, 2011.; Cotton, W. R., Alexander, G. D., Hertenstein, R., Walko, R. L., McAnelly, R. L., and Nicholls, M.: Cloud Venting – A review and some new global annual estimates, Earth-Sci. Reviews, 39, 169-206, 1995.; Cotton, W. R., Pielke Sr., R. A., Walko, R. L., Liston, G. E., Tremback, C., Jiang, H., McAnelly, R. L., Harrington, J. Y., Nicholls, M. E., Carrio, G. G., and McFadden, J. P.: RAMS 2001: Current status and future directions. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 82, 5–29, 2003.; Cohen, C.: A quantitative investigation of entrainment and detrainment in numerically simulated cumulonimbus clouds, J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 1657–1674, 2000.; Kirkpatrick, C., McCaul Jr., E. W., and Cohen, C.: Sensitivities of Simulated Convective Storms to Environmental CAPE, Mon. Weather Rev., 139, 3514–3532, 2011.; Cohen, C. and McCaul Jr., E. W.: The sensitivity of simulated convective storms to variations in prescribed single moment microphysics parameters that describe particle distributions, sizes, and numbers, Mon. Weather Rev., 134, 2547–2565, 2006.; Dickerson, R. R., Huffman, G. J., Luke, W. T., Nunnermacker, L. J., Pickering, K. E., Leslie, A. C. D., Lindsey, C. G., Slinn, W. G. N., Kelly, T. J., Daum, P. H., Delany, A. C., Greenberg, J. P., Zimmerman, P. R., Boatman, J. F., Ray, J. D., and Stedman D. H.: Thunderstorms – An important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants, Science, 235, 460–464, 1987.; Dvonch, J. T., Graney, J. R., Marsik, F. J., Keeler, G. J., and Stevens, R. K.: An investigation of source-receptor relationships for mercury in south Florida using event precipitation data, Sci. Total Environ., 213, 95–108, 1998.; Dvonch, J. T., Keeler, G. J., and Marsik, F. J.: The influence of meteorological conditions on the wet deposition of mercury in southern Florida, J. Appl. Meteor., 44, 1421–1435, 2005.; Edgerton, E. S., Hartsell, B. E., and Jansen, J. J.: Mercury speciation in coal-fired power plant plumes observed at three surface sites in the southeastern US, Environ. Sci. Technol., 40, 4563–4570, doi:10.1021/es0515607, 2006.; Environmental Protection Agency, 2011: 2010 Biennial Listing of Fish Advisories, Technical Report EPA-820-F-11-014, available at: http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/fishshellfish/fishadvisories/upload/technical_factsheet_2010.pdf, last access: 15 November 2011.; Guentzel, J. L., Landing, W. M., Gill, G. A., and Pollman, C. D.: Processes influencing rainfall deposition of mercury in Florida, Environ. Sci. Technol., 35, 863–873, 2001.; Halland, J. J., Fuelb

 

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