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Multi-station Synthesis of Early Twentieth Century Surface Atmospheric Electricity Measurements for Upper Tropospheric Properties : Volume 13, Issue 13 (30/07/2007)

By Harrison, R. G.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003998673
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 7
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Multi-station Synthesis of Early Twentieth Century Surface Atmospheric Electricity Measurements for Upper Tropospheric Properties : Volume 13, Issue 13 (30/07/2007)  
Author: Harrison, R. G.
Volume: Vol. 13, Issue 13
Language: English
Subject: Science, Advances, Geosciences
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2007
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Bennett, A. J., & Harrison, R. G. (2007). Multi-station Synthesis of Early Twentieth Century Surface Atmospheric Electricity Measurements for Upper Tropospheric Properties : Volume 13, Issue 13 (30/07/2007). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, P.O. Box 243, Earley Gate, Reading RG6 6BB, UK. The vertical columnar current density in the global atmospheric electrical circuit depends on the local columnar resistance. A simple model for the columnar resistance is suggested, which separates the local boundary layer component from the upper troposphere cosmic ray component, and calculates the boundary layer component from a surface measurement of air conductivity. This theory is shown to provide reasonable agreement with observations. One application of the simple columnar model theory is to provide a basis for the synthesis of surface atmospheric electrical measurements made simultaneously at several European sites. Assuming the ionospheric potential to be common above all the sites, the theoretical air-earth current density present in the absence of a boundary layer columnar resistance can be found by extrapolation. This is denoted the free troposphere limit air-earth current density, J0. Using early surface data from 1909 when no ionospheric potential data are available for corroboration, J0 is found to be ~6 pA m−2, although this is subject to uncertainties in the data and limitations in the theory. Later (1966–1971) European balloon and surface data give J0=2.4 pA m−2.

Summary
Multi-station synthesis of early twentieth century surface atmospheric electricity measurements for upper tropospheric properties

Excerpt
Budyko, M. I.: Results of observations of atmospheric electricity (The World Network, Additional Issue 1965–1969), USSR Chief Administration of the Hydro-Meteorological Service, Leningrad, 1971.; Callahan, R. C., Coroniti, S. C., Parziale, A .J., and Patten, R.: Electrical conductivity of air in the troposphere, J. Geophys. Res., 56, 545–551, 1951.; Carse, G. A. and MacOwan, D.: Observations of the earth-air electric current and the atmospheric potential gradient, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin., 30, 32, 460–465, 1910.; Carslaw, K. S., Harrison, R. G., and Kirkby, J.: Cosmic rays, clouds and climate, Science, 298, 5599, 732–1737, 2002.; Dobson, G.: A comparison of the electrical conditions of the atmosphere at Kew and Eskdalemuir with notes on observations of atmospheric electricity made in other countries, Geophysical Memoirs, 7, 155–169, Meteorological Office, His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1914.; Harrison, R. G.: Twentieth century secular decrease in the atmospheric electric circuit, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(14), 1660, doi:10.1029/2002GL014878, 2002.; Harrison, R. G.: The global atmospheric electrical circuit and climate, Surv. Geophys., 24, 441–484, 2004.; Harrison, R. G.: Columnar resistance changes in urban air, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 67(8–9), 763–773, 2005.; Harrison, R. G.: Electrical properties of surface atmospheric air at Eskdalemuir, 1909–1911, Atmos. Res., 84(2), 182–188, 2007.; Harrison, R. G., and Carslaw, K. S.: Ion-aerosol-cloud processes in the lower atmosphere, Rev. Geophys., 41(3), 1012, doi:10.1029/2002RG000114, 2003.; Harrison, R. G. and Ingram, W. J.: Air-earth current measurements at Kew, London, 1909–1979, Atmos. Res., 76(1–4), 49–64, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2004.11.022, 2004.; Harrison, R. G. and Carslaw, K. S.: Ion-aerosol-cloud processes in the lower atmosphere, Rev. Geophys., 41(3), 1012, doi:10.1029/2002RG000114, 2003.; Harrison, R. G. and Bennett, A. J.: Cosmic ray and air conductivity profiles retrieved from early twentieth century balloon soundings of the lower troposphere, Atmos. Res., 84, 2, 182–188, 2007.; Hogg, A. R.: Air-earth current observations in various localities, Arch. Meteor. Wien A, 3, 40–55, 1950.; Imyanitov, I. M. and Chubarina, E. V.: Electricity of the free atmosphere, Israel program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1967.; Isra\el, H.: Atmospheric Electricity, Vol 1 (Fundamentals, Conductivity, Ions) (Problems of Cosmic Physics, Vol 29), Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1970.; Isra\el, H.: Atmospheric Electricity, Vol 2 (Fields, charges, currents) (Problems of Cosmic Physics, Vol 29), Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1973.; Israelsson, S. and Tammet, H.: Variation of fair weather atmospheric electricity at Marsta Observatory, Sweden, 1993–1998, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 63, 1693–1703, 2001.; Lockwood, M.: Long-term variations in the magnetic fields of the Sun and the heliosphere: their origin, effects, and implications, J. Geophys. Res., 106(A8), 16 021–16 038, 2001.; Lockwood, M., Stamper, R., and Wild, M. N.: A doubling of the sun's coronal magnetic field during the last 100 years, Nature, 399, 437–439, 1999.; Märcz, F. and Harrison, R. G.: Further signatures of long-term changes in atmospheric electrical parameters observed in Europe, Ann. Geophys., 23, 1987–1995, 2005.; Markson, R.: Aircraft measurements of the atmospheric electrical global circuit during the period 1971–1984, J. Geophys. Res., 90(D4), 5967–5977, 1985.; Mülheisen, R. P.: New determination of the air-earth current over the ocean and measurements of ionospheric potentials, Pure Appl. Geophys., 84, 112–115, 1971.; Mülheisen, R.: The global circuit and its parameters, in: Electrical Processes in Atmospheres, edited by: Dolezalek, H. a

 

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