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An Assessment of the Vertical Diffusive Flux of Iron and Other Nutrients to the Surface Waters of the Subpolar North Atlantic Ocean : Volume 11, Issue 8 (16/04/2014)

By Painter, S. C.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004003472
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 18
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: An Assessment of the Vertical Diffusive Flux of Iron and Other Nutrients to the Surface Waters of the Subpolar North Atlantic Ocean : Volume 11, Issue 8 (16/04/2014)  
Author: Painter, S. C.
Volume: Vol. 11, Issue 8
Language: English
Subject: Science, Biogeosciences
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2014
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Painter, S. C., Achterberg, E. P., Klar, J., Rogan, N., Steigenberger, S., Henson, S. A.,...Moore, C. M. (2014). An Assessment of the Vertical Diffusive Flux of Iron and Other Nutrients to the Surface Waters of the Subpolar North Atlantic Ocean : Volume 11, Issue 8 (16/04/2014). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH, UK. In this study we report diapycnal diffusive fluxes of dissolved iron (dFe), dissolved aluminium (dAl) and the major macronutrients to the surface waters of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre. Turbulent diffusivities at the base of the summer mixed layer ranged from 0.01 to 0.5 (median 0.07) cm2 s−1 and daily macronutrient fluxes into the surface mixed layer typically represented < 0.5% of integrated mixed layer inventories, although fluxes were highly variable. Elevated nutrient fluxes of up to 4% of mixed layer inventories were identified on the Greenland Shelf, where integrated nutrient pools were lowest due to localised shoaling of the mixed layer. Diffusive fluxes of dFe and dAl were typically <0.1% of mixed layer inventories but were also highly variable between stations. Approximations of daily phytoplankton nutrient and Fe uptake indicate that the diffusive flux may at best represent <10% of phytoplankton macronutrient uptake, and only 1% of daily phytoplankton Fe uptake. The daily turbulent diffusive flux of dFe was comparable in magnitude to coincident estimates of aeolian Fe supply but despite shallower than normal convective mixing in winter 2010 the diffusive supply was 22 and 59 times smaller than the annual convective supply of Fe to the Irminger and Iceland basins respectively. The general picture obtained from this study is one of small magnitude diffusive nutrient and Fe fluxes to the subpolar North Atlantic during the period of annual nutrient minima and indicates that the diffusive supply mechanism is unlikely to alleviate the recently identified presence of seasonal iron limitation within the North Atlantic subpolar gyre; a condition exacerbated by low dFe:NO3 ratios in subsurface source waters.

Summary
An assessment of the vertical diffusive flux of iron and other nutrients to the surface waters of the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean

Excerpt
Achterberg, E. P., Moore, C. M., Henson, S. A., Steigenberger, S., Stohl, A., Eckhardt, S., Avendano, L. C., Cassidy, M., Hembury, D., Klar, J. K., Lucas, M. I., Macey, A. I., Marsay, C. M., and Ryan-Keogh, T. J.: Natural iron fertilization by the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1–6, doi:10.1002/grl.50221, 2013.; Bacon, S., Reverdin, G., Rigor, I. G., and Snaith, H. M.: A freshwater jet on the east Greenland Shelf, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 3068, doi:10.1029/2001JC000935, 2002.; Bacon, S., Gould, W. J., and Jia, Y.: Open-ocean convection in the Irminger Sea, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1246, doi:10.1029/2002GL016271, 2003.; Baker, A. R. and Croot, P. L.: Atmospheric and marine controls on aerosol iron solubility in seawater, Mar. Chem., 120, 4–13, 2010.; Baker, A. R., Weston, K., Kelly, S. D., Voss, M., Streu, P., and Cape, J. N.: Dry and wet deposition of nutrients from the tropical Atlantic atmosphere: links to primary productivity and nitrogen fixation, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 54, 1704–1720, 2007.; Bhatia, M. P., Kujawinski, E. B., Das, S. B., Breier, C. F., Henderson, P. B., and Charette, M. A.: Greenland meltwater as a significant and potentially bioavailable source of iron to the ocean, Nat. Geosci., 6, 274–278, 2013.; Boyd, P. W., Muggli, D., Varela, D., Goldblatt, R. H., Chretien, R., Orians, K. J., and Harrison, P. J.: In vitro iron enrichment experiments in NE subarctic Pacific, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 136, 179–193, 1996.; Boyd, P. W., Mackie, D. S., and Hunter, K. A.: Aerosol iron deposition to the surface ocean – modes of iron supply and biological response, Mar. Chem., 120, 128–143, 2009.; Croot, P. L., Frew, R. D., Sander, S., Hunter, K. A., Ellwood, M. J., Pickmere, S. E., Abraham, E. R., Law, C. S., Smith, M. J., and Boyd, P. W.: Physical mixing effects on iron biogeochemical cycling: FeCycle experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C06015, doi:10.1029/2006JC003748, 2007.; de Boyer Montegut, C., Madec, G., Fischer, A. S., Lazar, A., and Ludicone, D.: Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: an examination of profile data and a profile-based climatology, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C12003, doi:10.1029/2004JC002378, 2004.; Donaghay, P. L., Liss, P. S., Duce, R. A., Kester, D. R., Hanson, A. K., Villareal, T., Tindale, N. W., and Gifford, D. J.: The role of episodic atmospheric nutrient inputs in the chemical and biological dynamics of oceanic ecosystems, Oceanography 4, 62–70, 1991.; Duce, R. A. and Tindale, N. W.: Atmospheric transport or iron and its deposition in the ocean, Limnol. Oceanogr., 36, 1715–1726, 1991.; Duce, R. A., LIss, P. S., Merrill, J. T., Atlas, E. L., Buat-Menard, P., Hicks, B. B., Miller, J. M., Prospero, J. M., Arimoto, R., Church, T. M., Ellis, W., Galloway, J. N., Hansen, L., Jickells, T. D., Knap, A. H., Reinhardt, K. H., Schneider, B., Soudine, A., Tokos, J. J., Tsunogai, S., Wollast, R., and Zhou, M.: The atmospheric input of trace species to the world ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 5, 193–259, 1991.; Duggen, S., Olgun, N., Croot, P., Hoffmann, L., Dietze, H., Delmelle, P., and Teschner, C.: The role of airborne volcanic ash for the surface ocean biogeochemical iron-cycle: a review, Biogeosciences, 7, 827–844, doi:10.5194/bg-7-827-2010, 2010.; Elrod, V. A., Berelson, W. M., Coale, K. H., and Johnson, K. S.: The flux of iron from continental shelf sediments: a missing source for global budgets, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L12307, doi:10.1029/2004GL020216, 2004.; Eppley, R. W., Rogers, J. N., and McCarthy, J. J.: Half-saturation constants for uptake o

 

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