World Library  

Add to Book Shelf
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Book

Vertical Structure and Diurnal Variability of Ammonia Exchange Potential Within an Intensively Managed Grass Canopy : Volume 6, Issue 1 (06/01/2009)

By Herrmann, B.

Click here to view

Book Id: WPLBN0004003732
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 9
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Vertical Structure and Diurnal Variability of Ammonia Exchange Potential Within an Intensively Managed Grass Canopy : Volume 6, Issue 1 (06/01/2009)  
Author: Herrmann, B.
Volume: Vol. 6, Issue 1
Language: English
Subject: Science, Biogeosciences
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Publication Date:
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications


APA MLA Chicago

Jones, S. K., Cellier, P., Mattsson, M., Schjoerring, J. K., Milford, C., Herrmann, B.,...Sutton, M. A. (2009). Vertical Structure and Diurnal Variability of Ammonia Exchange Potential Within an Intensively Managed Grass Canopy : Volume 6, Issue 1 (06/01/2009). Retrieved from

Description: Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zürich, Switzerland. Stomatal ammonia compensation points (Χs) of grass species on a mixed fertilized grassland were determined by measurements of apoplastic [NH4+] and [H>+] in the field. Calculated Χs values were compared with in-canopy atmospheric NH3 concentration (Χa) measurements.

Leaf apoplastic [NH4+] increased by a factor of two from the lowest level in the canopy to the top level. Bulk leaf [NH4+] and especially [NO3] slightly increased at the bottom of the canopy and these concentrations were very high in senescent plant litter. Calculated Χs values were below atmospheric Χs at all canopy levels measured, indicating that the grassland was characterized by NH3 deposition before cutting. This was confirmed by the Χa profile, showing the lowest Χa close to the ground (15 cm above soil surface) and an increase in Χa with canopy height. Neither Χs nor Χa could be measured close to the soil surface, however, the [NH4+] in the litter material indicated a high potential for NH3 emission.

A diurnal course in apoplastic [NH4+] was seen in the regrowing grass growing after cutting, with highest concentration around noon. Both apoplastic and tissue [NH4+] increased in young grass compared to tall grass. Following cutting, in-canopy gradients of atmospheric Χa showed NH3 emission but since calculated Χs values of the cut grass were still lower than atmospheric NH3 concentrations, the emissions could not entirely be explained by stomatal NH3 loss. High tissue [NH4+] in the senescent plant material indicated that this fraction constituted an NH3 source. After fertilization, [NH4+] increased both in apoplast and leaf tissue with the most pronounced increase in the former compared to the latter. The diurnal pattern in apoplastic [NH4+] was even more pronounced after fertilization and calculated Χs values were generally higher, but remained below atmospheric [NH3].

Vertical structure and diurnal variability of ammonia exchange potential within an intensively managed grass canopy

% vor jede Referenz Burkhardt, J., Flechard, C. R., Gresens, F., Mattsson, M. E., Jongejan, P. A. C., Erisman, J. W., Weidinger, T., Meszaros, R., Nemitz, E., and Sutton, M. A.: Modeling the dynamic chemical interactions of atmospheric ammonia and other trace gases with measured leaf surface wetness in a managed grassland canopy, Biogeosciences Discuss., 5, 2505–2539, 2008.; Denmead, O. T., Freney, J. R., and Simpson, J. R.: A closed ammnonia cycle within a plant canopy, Soil Biol. Biochem., 8, 161–164, 1976.; Bussink, D. W., Lowry, A., Harper, A., and Corré, W. J.: Ammonia transport in a temperate grassland: ll. Diurnal fluctuations in response to weather and management conditions, Agron. J., 88, 621–626, 1996.; David, M., Roche, R., Mattsson, M., Sutton, M. A., Schjoerring, J. K., Daemmgen, U., and Cellier, P.: Analysis of ammonia fluxes with intensively managed grassland using dynamic chambers ll. The effect of management options, Biogeosciences Discuss., in press, 2008.; Farquhar, G. D., Firth, P. M., Wetselaar, R., and Weir, B: On the gaseous exchange of ammonia between leaves and the environment: determination of the ammonia compensation point, Plant Physiol., 66, 710–714, 1980.; Flechard, C. R., Fowler, D., Sutton, M. A., and Cape, J. N.: A dynamic chemical model of bi-directional ammonia exchange between semi-natural vegetation and the atmosphere, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125, 2611–2641, 1999.; Genfa, Z. and Dasgupta, P. K.: Fluorometric measurement of aqueous ammonium ion in a flow injection system, Anal. Chem., 61, 408–412, 1989.; Harper, L. A., Bussink ,D. W., van der Meer, H. G., and Corré, W. J.: Ammonia transport in a temperate grassland: 1. Seasonal transport in relation to soil fertility and crop management, Agron. J., 88, 614–621, 1996.; Herrmann, B., Jones, S. K., Fuhrer, J., Feller, U., and Neftel, A.: N budget and NH3 exchange of a grass/clover crop at two levels of N application, Plant and Soil, 235, 243–252, 2001.; Hill, P., Raven, J. A., Loubet, B., Fowler, D., and Sutton, M. A.: Comparison of gas exchange and bioassay determinations of the ammonia compensation point in \textitLuzula \textitsylvatica, (Huds.) Gaud. Plant Physiol., 125, 476–487, 2001.; Hill, P. W., Raven, J. A., and Sutton, M. A.: Leaf age-related differences in apoplastic NH$_4^+$ concentration, pH and the NH3 compensation point for a wild perennial, J. Exp. Bot., 53, 277–286, 2002.; Horvath, L., Astalos, M., Fuhrer, E., Meszaros, R., and Weidinger, T.: Measurement of ammonia exchange over grassland in the Hungarian Great Plain, Agric. Forest Meteorol., 130, 282–298, 2005.; Husted, S. and Schjoerring, J. K.: Apoplastic pH and ammonium concentration in leaves of \textitBrassica napus L., Plant Physiology, 190, 1453–1460, 1995.; Husted, S., Mattsson, M., and Schjoerring, J. K.: Ammonia compensation points in two cultivars of \textitHordeum vulgare L., during vegetative and generative growth, Plant, Cell Environ., 19, 1299–1306, 1996.; Husted, S. and Schjoerring, J. K.: Ammonia flux between oilseed rape plants and the atmosphere in response to changes in leaf temperature, light intensity and air humidity, Plant Physiol., 112, 67–74, 1996.; Husted, S., Schjoerring, J. K., Nielsen, K. H., Nemitz, E., and Sutton, M. A.: Stomatal compensation points for ammonia in oilseed rape plants under field conditions, Agric. Forest Meteorol., 105, 371–383, 2000.; Husted, S., Mattsson, M., Möllers, C., Wallbraun, M., and Schjoerring, J. K.: Photorespiratory NH$_4^+$ production in leaves of wildtype and GS2-antisense oilseed rape, Plant Physiol., 130, 989–998, 2002.; Kruit, R., Erismann, J. W., van Pul, W. A. J., Otjes, R. P., Hofschreuder, P., Jacobs, A. F. G., and Holtslag, A. M.: Ammonia fluxes and derived canopy compensation points over non-fertilized agricultural grassland in The Netherlands using the new gradient ammonia-high accuracy-monitor (GRAHAM), Atmos. Environ., 41, 1275–1287, 2007.; Lemon, E. and


Click To View

Additional Books

  • Annals of the New York Academy of Scienc... Volume: v. 17 (1906-07) (by )
  • New Insights on the Role of Organic Spec... (by )
  • Enso and Iod Teleconnections for African... (by )
  • Bulletin - New York State Museum Volume: no. 51 1902 (by )
  • Is Forest Management a Significant Sourc... (by )
  • Dynamics of Turbulent Western Boundary C... (by )
  • Nitrogen Cycling in the Central Arabian ... (by )
  • Technical Note: a Low Cost Unmanned Aeri... (by )
  • Timing of Sea Ice Retreat Can Alter Phyt... (by )
  • Coastal Upwelling Fluxes of O2, N2O, and... (by )
  • Dissolution of Calcium Carbonate: Observ... (by )
  • Extreme Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Fluxe... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.