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Ammonia Fluxes in Relation to Cutting and Fertilization of an Intensively Managed Grassland Derived from an Inter-comparison of Gradient Measurements : Volume 6, Issue 5 (15/05/2009)

By Milford, C.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004003895
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 16
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Ammonia Fluxes in Relation to Cutting and Fertilization of an Intensively Managed Grassland Derived from an Inter-comparison of Gradient Measurements : Volume 6, Issue 5 (15/05/2009)  
Author: Milford, C.
Volume: Vol. 6, Issue 5
Language: English
Subject: Science, Biogeosciences
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2009
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

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Nemitz, E., Hargreaves, K. J., Theobald, M. R., Jones, S. K., Loubet, B., Cellier, P.,...Hensen, A. (2009). Ammonia Fluxes in Relation to Cutting and Fertilization of an Intensively Managed Grassland Derived from an Inter-comparison of Gradient Measurements : Volume 6, Issue 5 (15/05/2009). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Edinburgh Research Station), Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB, UK. Quantification of ammonia (NH3) land-atmosphere exchange is required for atmospheric modelling and assessment of nitrogen deposition, yet flux measurement methods remain highly uncertain. To address this issue, a major inter-comparison of ammonia fluxes over intensively managed grassland was conducted during the GRAMINAE Integrated Experiment held in Braunschweig, Germany. In order to provide a robust dataset of ammonia exchange with the vegetation, four independent continuous flux gradient systems were operated. Three independently operated continuous wet denuders systems (AMANDA) were compared with a Wet Effluent Diffusion Denuder (mini-WEDD) system. Measurements were made at two distances from an adjacent livestock farm, allowing effects of advection to be quantified in a real landscape setting. Data treatment included filtering for instrument failure, disturbed wind sectors and unsuitable micrometeorological conditions, with corrections made for storage and advection errors.

The inter-comparison demonstrated good agreement in measured ammonia concentrations and fluxes (relative standard error <20%) for some periods, although the performance of the ammonia analyzers were variable, with much poorer agreement on particular days. However, by using four systems, the inter-comparison was able to provide a robust mean estimate of continuous ammonia fluxes through the experiment. The observed fluxes were: a) small bi-directional fluxes prior to cutting (−64 to 42 ng NH3 m<sup>−2 s−1), b) larger diurnally-varying emissions following cutting (−49 to 703 ng NH3 m<sup>−2 s−1) and c) much larger emissions following fertilizer application (0 to 3820 ng NH3 m<sup>−2 s−1). The results are a salutary reminder of the uncertainty in unreplicated ammonia flux measurements, while the replication of the present study provides a uniquely robust dataset for the evaluation of ammonia exchange processes. It is clear that consistently reliable determination of ammonia concentrations remains the major measurement challenge.


Summary
Ammonia fluxes in relation to cutting and fertilization of an intensively managed grassland derived from an inter-comparison of gradient measurements

Excerpt
Sutton, M. A., Nemitz, E., Milford, C., Campbell, C., Erisman, J. W., Hensen, A., Cellier, P., David, M., Loubet, B., Personne, E., Schjoerring, J. K., Mattsson, M., Dorsey, J. R., Gallagher, M. W., Horvath, L., Weidinger, T., Meszaros, R., Dämmgen, U., Neftel, A., Herrmann, B., Lehman, B. E. Flechard, C., and Burkhardt, J.: Dynamics of ammonia exchange with cut grassland: Synthesis of results and conclusions, Biogeosciences Discuss., 6, 1121–1184, 2009a.; Sutton, M. A., Nemitz, E., Milford, C., Fowler, D., Moreno, J., San Jose, R., Wyers, G. P., Otjes, R., Harrison, R., Husted, S., and Schjoerring, J. K.: Micrometeorological measurements of net ammonia fluxes over oilseed rape during two vegetation periods, Agric. For. Meteorol., 105, 351–369, 2000.; Sutton, M. A., Nemitz, E., Theobald, M. R., Milford, C., Dorsey, J. R., Gallagher, M. W., Hensen, A., Jongejan, P. A. C., Erisman, J. W., Mattsson, M., Schjoerring, J. K., Cellier, P., Loubet, B., Roche, R., Neftel, A., Herrmann, B., Jones, S. K., Lehman, B. E., Horvath, L., Weidinger, T., Rajkai, K., Burkhardt, J., Löpmeier, F. J., and Dämmgen, U.: Dynamics of ammonia exchange with cut grassland: strategy and implementation of the GRAMINAE Integrated Experiment, Biogeosciences, 6, 309–331, 2009b.; Thompson, R. B., Pain, B. F., and Lockyer, D. R.: Ammonia volatilization from cattle slurry following surface application to grassland. 1. Influence of mechanical separation, changes in chemical-composition during volatilization and the presence of the grass sward, Plant and Soil, 125, 109–117, 1990a.; Thompson, R. B., Pain, B. F., and Rees, Y. J.: Ammonia volatilization from cattle slurry following surface application to grassland. 2. Influence of application rate, wind-speed and applying slurry in narrow bands, Plant Soil, 125, 119–128, 1990b.; Trebs, I., Lara, L. L., Zeri, L. M. M., Gatti, L. V., Artaxo, P., Dlugi, R., Slanina, J., Andreae, M. O., and Meixner, F. X.: Dry and wet deposition of inorganic nitrogen compounds to a tropical pasture site (Rondonia, Brazil), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 447–469, 2006.; Appel, B. R., Tokiwa, Y., Kothny, E. L., Wu, R., and Povard, V.: Evaluation of procedures for measuring atmospheric nitric acid and ammonia, Atmos. Environ., 22, 1565–1573, 1988.; Van der Weerden, T. J. and Jarvis, S. C.: Ammonia emission factors for N fertilisers applied to two contrasting grassland soils, Environ. Pollut., 95, 205–211, 1997.; Vecera, Z. and Dasgupta, P. K.: Measurement of atmospheric nitric and nitrous acids with a wet effluent diffusion denuder and low-pressure ion chromatography-post column reaction detection, Anal. Chem., 63, 2210–2216, 1991.; Walker, J. T., Robarge, W. P., Wu, Y., and Meyers, T.: Measurement of bi-directional ammonia fluxes over soybean using the modified Bowen-ratio technique, Agric. For. Meteorol., 138, 54–68. 2006.; Warland, J. S., Dias, G. M., and Thurtella, G. W.: A tunable diode laser system for ammonia flux measurements over multiple plots, Environ. Pollut., 114, 215–221, 2001.; Whitehead, J. D., Twigg, M., Famulari, D., Nemitz, E., Sutton, M. A., Gallagher, M. W., and Fowler, D.: Evaluation of laser absorption spectroscopic techniques for eddy covariance flux measurements of ammonia, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 2041–2046, 2008.; Wiebe, H. A., Anlauf, K. G., Tuazon, E. C., Winer, A. M., Biermann, H. W., Appel, B. R., Solomon, P. A., Cass, G. R., Ellestad, T. G., Knapp, K. T., Peake, E., Spicer, C. W., and Lawson, D. R.: A comparison of measurements of atmospheric ammonia by filter packs, transition-flow reactors, simple and annular denuders and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Atmos. Environ., 24, 1019–1028, 1990.; Wyers, G. P., Otjes, R. P., and Slanina, J.: A continuous flow denuder for the measurement of ambient concentrations and surface fluxes of ammonia, Atmos. Environ., 27, 2085–2090, 1993.; Blum, H., Hendrey, G., and Nosberger, J.: Effects of elevated CO2, N fertilization, and cutting regime on t


 

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