World Library  


Add to Book Shelf
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Book

Advances in Understanding, Models and Parameterisations of Biosphere-atmosphere Ammonia Exchange : Volume 10, Issue 3 (21/03/2013)

By Flechard, C. R.

Click here to view

Book Id: WPLBN0004004448
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 113
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Advances in Understanding, Models and Parameterisations of Biosphere-atmosphere Ammonia Exchange : Volume 10, Issue 3 (21/03/2013)  
Author: Flechard, C. R.
Volume: Vol. 10, Issue 3
Language: English
Subject: Science, Biogeosciences, Discussions
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2013
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Massad, R., Personne, E., Bash, J. O., Loubet, B., Cooter, E. J., Simpson, D.,...Nemitz, E. (2013). Advances in Understanding, Models and Parameterisations of Biosphere-atmosphere Ammonia Exchange : Volume 10, Issue 3 (21/03/2013). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: INRA, UMR1069 Sol Agro-hydrosystème Spatialisation, 35042 Rennes, France. Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) dominates global emissions of total reactive nitrogen (Nr), while emissions from agricultural production systems contribute about two thirds of global NH3 emissions; the remaining third emanates from oceans, natural vegetation, humans, wild animals and biomass burning. On land, NH3 emitted from the various sources eventually returns to the biosphere by dry deposition to sink areas, predominantly semi-natural vegetation, and by wet and dry deposition as ammonium (NH4+) to all surfaces. However, the land/atmosphere exchange of gaseous NH3 is in fact bi-directional over unfertilized as well as fertilized ecosystems, with periods and areas of emission and deposition alternating in time (diurnal, seasonal) and space (patchwork landscapes). The exchange is controlled by a range of environmental factors, including meteorology, surface layer turbulence, thermodynamics, air and surface heterogeneous-phase chemistry, canopy geometry, plant development stage, leaf age, organic matter decomposition, soil microbial turnover, and, in agricultural systems, by fertilizer application rate, fertilizer type, soil type, crop type, and agricultural management practices. We review the range of processes controlling NH3 emission and uptake in the different parts of the soil-canopy-atmosphere continuum, with NH3 emission potentials defined at the substrate and leaf levels by different [NH4+] / [H+] ratios (Γ). Surface/atmosphere exchange models for NH3 are necessary to compute the temporal and spatial patterns of emissions and deposition at the soil, plant, field, landscape, regional and global scales, in order to assess the multiple environmental impacts of air-borne and deposited NH3 and NH4+. Models of soil/vegetation/atmosphereem NH3 exchange are reviewed from the substrate and leaf scales to the global scale. They range from simple steady-state, big leaf canopy resistance models, to dynamic, multi-layer, multi-process, multi-chemical species schemes. Their level of complexity depends on their purpose, the spatial scale at which they are applied, the current level of parameterisation, and the availability of the input data they require. State-of-the-art solutions for determining the emission/sink Γ potentials through the soil/canopy system include coupled, interactive chemical transport models (CTM) and soil/ecosystem modelling at the regional scale. However, it remains a matter for debate to what extent realistic options for future regional and global models should be based on process-based mechanistic versus empirical and regression-type models. Further discussion is needed on the extent and timescale by which new approaches can be used, such as integration with ecosystem models and satellite observations.

Summary
Advances in understanding, models and parameterisations of biosphere-atmosphere ammonia exchange

Excerpt
Wilson, L. J., Bacon, P. J., Bull, J., Dragosits, U., Blackall, T. D., Dunn, T. E., Hamer, K. C., Sutton, M. A., and Wanless, S.: Modelling the spatial distribution of ammonia emissions from seabirds, Environ. Pollut., 131, 173–185, 2004.; Winiwarter, W., Hettelingh, J.-P., Bouwman, A. F., de Vries, W., Erisman, J. W., Galloway, J., Klimont, Z., Leach, A., Leip, A., Pallière, C., Schneider, U. A., Spranger, T., Sutton, M. A., Svirejeva-Hopkins, A., van der Hoek, K. W., and Witzke, P.: Future scenarios of nitrogen in Europe, in: The European Nitrogen Assessment: Sources, Effects and Policy Perspectives, edited by: Sutton, M. A., Howard, C. M., Erisman, J. W., Billen, G., Bleeker, A., Grennfelt, P., van Grinsven, H., and Grizzetti, B., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ISBN 978-1-107-00612-6, 551–569, 2011.; Wittig, V. E., Ainsworth, E. A., and Long, S. P.: To what extent do current and projected increases in surface ozone affect photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of trees? A meta-analytic review of the last 3 decades of experiments, Plant Cell Environ., 30, 1150–1162, 2007.; Wolff, V., Trebs, I., Ammann, C., and Meixner, F. X.: Aerodynamic gradient measurements of the NH3-HNO3-\chem{NH_4NO_3} triad using a wet chemical instrument: an analysis of precision requirements and flux errors, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 187–208, doi:<a href=http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/amt-3-187-2010>10.5194/amt-3-187-2010a>, 2010a.; Wolff, V., Trebs, I., Foken, T., and Meixner, F. X.: Exchange of reactive nitrogen compounds: concentrations and fluxes of total ammonium and total nitrate above a spruce canopy, Biogeosciences, 7, 1729–1744, doi:<a href=http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/bg-7-1729-2010>10.5194/bg-7-1729-2010a>, 2010b.; Wu, S.-Y., Hub, J.-L., Zhang, Y., and Aneja, V. P.: Modeling atmospheric transport and fate of ammonia in North Carolina – Part II: Effect of ammonia emissions on fine particulate matter formation, Atmos. Environ., 42, 3437–3451, 2008.; Wyers, G. P. and Erisman, J. W.: Ammonia exchange over coniferous forest, Atmos. Environ., 32, 441–451, 1998.; Wu, Y., Brashers, B., Finkelstein, P. L., and Pleim, J. E.: A multiplayer biochemical dry deposition model. I. Model formulation, J. Geophys. Res., 108, D14013, doi:<a href=http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002293>10.1029/2002JD002293a>, 2003.; Wu, Y. H., Walker, J., Schwede, D., Peters-Lidard, C., Dennis, R., and Robarge, W.: A new model of bi-directional ammonia exchange between the atmosphere and biosphere: ammonia stomatal compensation point, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 149, 263–280, 2009.; Wyers, G. P., Otjes, R. P., and Slanina, J.: A continuous flow denuder for the measurement of ambient concentrations and surface fluxes of NH3, Atmos. Environ., 27A, 2085–2090, 1993.; Zhang, L., Brook, J. R., and Vet, R.: A revised parameterization for gaseous dry deposition in air-quality models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 2067–2082, doi:<a href=http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-3-2067-2003>10.5194/acp-3-2067-2003&


 

Click To View

Additional Books


  • Predicting Long-term Denitrification Cap... (by )
  • Nitrogen Fertilization Did Not Affect De... (by )
  • Identification of Two Organic Bands Show... (by )
  • The Exchange of Carbon Dioxide Between W... (by )
  • Spatiotemporal Distributions of Fukushim... (by )
  • Atmospheric Deposition as a Source of Ca... (by )
  • Global Variability of Phytoplankton Func... (by )
  • Stable Isotopes in Barnacles as a Tool t... (by )
  • An Improved Ocean Model of Aluminium: th... (by )
  • Insights Into the Transfer of Silicon Is... (by )
  • Short Term Changes in Zooplankton Commun... (by )
  • A Reduced Fraction of Plant N Derived fr... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.