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Intercomparison of Fast Response Commercial Gas Analysers for Nitrous Oxide Flux Measurements Under Field Conditions : Volume 11, Issue 8 (01/08/2014)

By Rannik, Ü.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004004644
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 37
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Intercomparison of Fast Response Commercial Gas Analysers for Nitrous Oxide Flux Measurements Under Field Conditions : Volume 11, Issue 8 (01/08/2014)  
Author: Rannik, Ü.
Volume: Vol. 11, Issue 8
Language: English
Subject: Science, Biogeosciences, Discussions
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2014
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Description
Description: Department of Physics, P.O. Box 48, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland. Four gas analysers capable of measuring nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration at a response time necessary for eddy covariance flux measurements were operated from spring till winter 2011 over a field cultivated with reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinaceae, L.), a perennial bioenergy crop in Eastern Finland. The instruments were TGA100A (Campbell Scientific Inc.), CW-TILDAS-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc.), N2O/CO-23d (Los Gatos Research Inc.) and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc.). The period with high emission, lasting for about two weeks after fertilization in late May, was characterised by an up to two orders of magnitude higher emission, whereas during the rest of the campaign the N2O fluxes were small, from 0.1 to 1 nmol m−2 s−1. Two instruments, CW-TILDAS-CS and N2O/CO-23d, determined the N2O exchange with minor systematic difference throughout the campaign, when operated simultaneously. TGA100A produced cumulatively highest N2O estimates (with 29% higher value during the period when all instruments were operational). QC-TILDAS-76-CS obtained 36% lower fluxes than CW-TILDAS-CS during the first period, including the emission episode, whereas the correspondence with other instruments during the rest of the campaign was good. The reason for these episodic higher and lower estimates by the two instruments is not currently known, suggesting further need for detailed evaluation of instrument performance under field conditions with emphasis on stability, calibration and, in particular, simultaneous accurate determination of water vapour concentration due to its large impact on small N2O fluxes through spectroscopic and dilution corrections. The instrument CW-TILDAS-CS was characterised by the lowest noise level (std around 0.12 ppb at 10 Hz sampling rate), as compared to N2O/CO-23d and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (around 0.50 ppb) and TGA100A (around 2 ppb). Both instruments based on Continuous-Wave Quantum Cascade Lasers, CW-TILDAS-CS and N2O/CO-23d, were able to determine the same sample of low N2O fluxes with high mutual coefficient of determination at 30 min averaging level and with minor systematic difference over the observation period of several months.

Summary
Intercomparison of fast response commercial gas analysers for nitrous oxide flux measurements under field conditions

Excerpt
Aubinet, M., Grelle, A., Ibrom, A., Rannik, Ü., Moncrieff, J., Foken, T., Kowalski, A. S., Martin, P. H., Berbigier, P., Bernhofer, Ch., Clement, R., Elbers, J., Granier, A., Grünwald, T., Morgenstern, K., Pilegaard, K., Rebmann, C., Snijders, W., Valentini, R., and Vesala, T.: Estimates of the annual net carbon and water exchange of European forests: the EUROFLUX methodology, Adv. Ecol. Res., 30, 113–175, 2000.; Christensen, S., Ambus, P., Arah, J. R., Clayton, H., Galle, B., Griffith, D. W. T., Hargreaves, K. J., Klemedtsson, L., Lind, A. M., Maag, M., Scott, A., Skiba, U., Smith, K. A., Welling, M., and Wienhold, F. G.: Nitrous oxide emissions from an agricultural field: comparison between measurements by flux chamber and micrometeorological techniques, Atmos. Environ., 30, 4183–4190, 1996.; Eugster, W., Zeyer, K., Zeeman, M., Michna, P., Zingg, A., Buchmann, N., and Emmenegger, L.: Methodical study of nitrous oxide eddy covariance measurements using quantum cascade laser spectrometery over a Swiss forest, Biogeosciences, 4, 927–939, doi:10.5194/bg-4-927-2007, 2007.; Famulari, D., Nemitz, E., Di Marco, C., Phillips, G. J., Thomas, R., House, E., and Fowler, D.: Eddy-Covariance measurements of nitrous oxide fluxes above a city, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 150, 786–793, 2010.; FAO, World reference base for soil resources 2006: World Soil Resources Reports 103, Rome, Italy, 2006.; Finkelstein, P. L. and Sims, P. F.: Sampling error in eddy correlation flux measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 3503–3509, 2001.; Finnigan, J. J., Clement, R., Malhi, Y., Leuning, R., and Cleugh, H. A.: A re-evaluation of longterm flux measurement techniques – Part I: Averaging and coordinate rotation, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 107, 1–48, 2003.; Flechard, C., Neftel, A., Jocher, M., and Amman, C.: Bi-directional soil–atmosphere N2O exchange over two mown grassland systems with contrasting management practices, Glob. Change Biol., 11, 2114–2127, 2005.; Foken, T. and Wichura, B.: Tools for quality assessment of surface-based flux measurements, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 78, 83–105, 1996.; Foken, T., Leuning, R., Oncley, S. R., Mauder, M., and Aubinet, M.: Corrections and Data Quality Control, in Eddy Covariance. A Practical Guide to Measurement and Data Analysis, Springer Science+Business Media B. V., 85–131, doi:10.1007/978-94-007-2351-1, 2012.; Horst, T. W.: A simple formula for attenuation of eddy fluxes measured with first-order-response scalar sensors, Bound.-Layer Meteorol., 82, 219–233, 1997.; Järvi, L., Nordbo, A., Rannik, Ü., Haapanala, S., Riikonen, A., Mammarella, I., Pihlatie, M., and Vesala, T.: Urban nitrous oxide fluxes measured using the eddy-covariance technique in Helsinki, Finland, Boreal Environm. Res., 19, in press, 2014.; Kaimal, J. C. and Finnigan, J. J.: Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows, Their Structure and Measurement, Oxford University Press, New York, 1994.; Kaimal, J. C., Wyngaard, J. C., Izumi, Y., and Cotè, O. R.: Spectral characteristics of surface layer turbulence, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 98, 563–589, 1972.; Korhonen, J. F. J., Pihlatie, M., Pumpanen, J., Aaltonen, H., Hari, P., Levula, J., Kieloaho, A.-J., Nikinmaa, E., Vesala, T., and Ilvesniemi, H.: Nitrogen balance of a boreal Scots pine forest, Biogeosciences, 10, 1083–1095, doi:10.5194/bg-10-1083-2013, 2013.; Kroon, P. S., Hensen, A., Jonker, H. J. J., Zahniser, M. S., van 't Veen, W. H., and Vermeulen, A. T.: Suitability of quantum cascade laser spectroscopy for CH4 and N2O eddy covariance flux measurements, Biogeosciences, 4, 715–728, doi:10.5194/bg-4-715-2007, 2007.; Laville, P., Henault, C., Renault, P., Cellier, P., Oriol, A., Devis, X., Flura

 

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