World Library  


Add to Book Shelf
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Book

Advection of NH3 Over a Pasture Field, and Its Effect on Gradient Flux Measurements : Volume 6, Issue 1 (06/01/2009)

By Loubet, B.

Click here to view

Book Id: WPLBN0004005165
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 34
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Advection of NH3 Over a Pasture Field, and Its Effect on Gradient Flux Measurements : Volume 6, Issue 1 (06/01/2009)  
Author: Loubet, B.
Volume: Vol. 6, Issue 1
Language: English
Subject: Science, Biogeosciences, Discussions
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2009
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Hensen, A., Sutton, M. A., Loubet, B., Erisman, J., Milford, C., Daemmgen, U., & Cellier, P. (2009). Advection of NH3 Over a Pasture Field, and Its Effect on Gradient Flux Measurements : Volume 6, Issue 1 (06/01/2009). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures, Thiverval-Grignon, 78850, France. Deposition of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) to semi-natural ecosystems leads to serious adverse effects, such as acidification and eutrophication. A step in this quantification is the measurement of NH3 fluxes over semi-natural and agricultural land. However, measurement of NH3 fluxes over vegetation in the vicinity of strong NH3 sources is difficult, since NH3 emissions are highly heterogeneous. Indeed, under such conditions, local advection errors may alter the measured fluxes. In this study, local advection errors (Δ Fz,adv) were estimated over a 14 ha grassland field, which was successively cut and fertilised, as part of the GRAMINAE integrated Braunschweig experiment. The magnitude of Δ Fz,adv was determined up to 810 m downwind from farm buildings emitting between 6 and 12 kg NH3 day−1. The GRAMINAE experiment provided a unique opportunity to compare two methods of estimating Δ Fz,adv: (1) based on direct measurements of horizontal concentration gradients, and (2) based on inverse dispersion modelling.

Two sources of local advection were clearly identified: the farm NH3 emissions leading to positive Δ Fz,adv, and field NH3 emissions, after cutting and fertilisation, which led to a negative Δ Fz,adv. The local advection flux from the farm was in the range 0 to 27 ng m<sup>−2 s−1 NH3 at 610 m from the farm, whereas Δ Fz,adv due to field emission was proportional to the local flux, and ranged between −209 and 13 ng m<sup>−2 s−1 NH3. The local advection flux Δ Fz,adv was either positive or negative depending on the magnitude of these two contributions. The modelled and measured advection errors agreed well, provided the modelled Δ Fz,adv was estimated at 2 m height. This study constitutes the first attempt to validate the inverse modelling approach to determine advection errors for NH3. The measured advection errors, relative to the vertical flux at 1 m height, were 121% on average, before the field was cut (when downwind of the farm), and less than 7% when the field was fertilised.


Summary
Advection of NH3 over a pasture field, and its effect on gradient flux measurements

Excerpt
Bouwman, A. F., Lee, D. S., Asman, W. A. H., Dentener, J. F., van de Hoek, K. W., and Olivier, J. J. G.: A~global emission inventory for ammonia, Global. Biogeochem. Cy., 11, 561–587, 1997.; Brost, R. A., Delany, A. C., and Huebert, B. J.: Numerical modeling of concentrations and fluxes of \chemHNO_3, \chemNH_3, and \chemNH_4NO_3 near the surface, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 7137–7152, 1988.; Burkhardt, J., Flechard, C. R., Gresens, F., Mattsson, M. E., Jongejan, P. A. C., Erisman, J. W., Weidinger, T., Meszaros, R., Nemitz, E., and Sutton, M. A.: Modeling the dynamic chemical interactions of atmospheric ammonia and other trace gases with measured leaf surface wetness in a managed grassland canopy, Biogeosciences Discuss., 5, 2505–2539, 2008.; Dragosits, U. Sutton, M. A., Place, C. J., and Bayley, A.: Modelling the spatial distribution of ammonia emissions in the UK, Environ. Pollut., 102(S1), 195–203, 1998.; Itier, B., Brunet, Y., McAneney, K. J., and Lagouarde, J. P.: Downwind evolution of scalar fluxes and surface resistance under conditions of local advection.Part I: a~rappraisal of boundary conditions, Agr. Forest. Meteorol., 71, 211–225, 1994.; Erisman, J. W., and Wyers, G. P.: Continuous measurements of surface exchange of \chemSO_2 and \chemNH_3: implications for their possible interaction in the deposition process, Atmos. Environ., 27A, 1937–1949, 1993.; Krupa, S. V.: Effects of atmospheric ammonia (\chemNH_3) on terrestrial vegetation: a~review, Environ. Pollut., 124, 179–221, 2003.; Fangmeier, A., Hadwiger-Fangmeier, A., van der Eerden, L., and Jaeger, H. J.: Effects of atmospheric ammonia on vegetation – a~review, Environ. Pollut., 86, 43–82, 1994.; Flesch, T. K., Wilson, J. D., Harper, L. A., Todd, R. W., and Cole, N. A.: Agr. Forest. Meteorol., 144, 139–155, 2007.; Foken, T., Wimmer, F., Mauder, M., Thomas, C., and Liebethal, C.: Some aspects of the energy balance closure problem, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4395–4402, 2006.; Fowler, D., Coyle, M., Flechard, C., Hargreaves, K. J., Nemitz, E., Storeton-West, R., Sutton, M. A., and Erisman, J. W.: Advances in micrometeorological methods for the measurement and interpretation of gas and particle nitrogen fluxes, Plant Soil., 228(1), 117–129, 2001.; Fowler, D. and Duyzer, J. H.: Micrometeorological techniques for the measurement of trace gas exchange. in Exchange of Trace Gases Between Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere, edited by: Andreae, M. O. and Schimel, D. S., 189–207, John Wiley, New York, 1989.; Garland, J. A.: The dry deposition of sulphur dioxide to land and water surfaces, Proc. R. Soc. Lon. Ser.-A., 354, 245–268, 1977.; Hensen, A., Nemitz, E., Flynn, M. J., Blatter, A., Jones, S. K., Sørensen, L. L., Hensen, B., Pryor, S., Jensen, B., Otjes, R. P., Cobussen, J., Loubet, B., Erisman, J. W., Gallagher, M. W., Neftel, A., and Sutton, M. A.: Inter-comparison of ammonia fluxes obtained using the relaxed eddy accumulation technique, Biogeosciences Discuss., 5, 3965–4000, 2008.; Hensen, A., Loubet, B., Mosquera, J., van den Bulk, W. C. M., Erisman, J. W., Dämmgen, U., Milford, C., Löpmeier, F. J., Cellier, P., Mikuska, P., and Sutton, M. A.: Estimation of \chemNH_3 emissions from a~naturally ventilated livestock farm using local-scale atmospheric dispersion modelling, Biogeosciences Discuss., submitted,, 2008.; Huang, C. H.: A~theory of dispersion in turbulent shear flow, Atmos. Environ. 13, 453–463, 1979.; Kaimal, J. C. and Finnigan, J. J.: Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows, Their Structure and Measurement. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1994.; Hertel, O., Skjøth, C. A., Lofstrøm, P., Geels, C., Frohn, L. M., Ellermann, T., and Madsen, P. V.: Modelling nitrogen deposition on a~local scale~– A~review of the current state of the art, Environ. Chem. 3, 317–337, 2006.; Keuken, M. P., Schoonebeek, C., van Wensveen-Louter, A., and Slanina, J.: Simultaneous sampling of \chemNH_3, \chemHNO_3, \chemHCl, \chemSO_2 and \chemH_2O_2 by a~wet annular denuder system, Atmos. Enviro


 

Click To View

Additional Books


  • Effect of Ammonium Input Over the Distri... (by )
  • Effects of Soil Rewetting and Thawing on... (by )
  • Estimation of the Global Inventory of Me... (by )
  • Soils of Amazonia with Particular Refere... (by )
  • Specific Rates of Leucine Incorporation ... (by )
  • Organic Matter Composition and Stabiliza... (by )
  • Heterotrophic Denitrification Vs. Autotr... (by )
  • Regulation of Phytoplankton Carbon to Ch... (by )
  • Biophysical Controls on Net Ecosystem Co... (by )
  • Net Community Production of Oxygen Deriv... (by )
  • Simulating the Vegetation Response to Ab... (by )
  • Soil Organic Carbon in the Sanjiang Plai... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.