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Localising the Nitrogen Imprint of the Paris Food Supply: the Potential of Organic Farming and Changes in Human Diet : Volume 8, Issue 6 (10/11/2011)

By Billen, G.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004005707
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 24
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Localising the Nitrogen Imprint of the Paris Food Supply: the Potential of Organic Farming and Changes in Human Diet : Volume 8, Issue 6 (10/11/2011)  
Author: Billen, G.
Volume: Vol. 8, Issue 6
Language: English
Subject: Science, Biogeosciences, Discussions
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2011
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

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Garnier, J., Chatzimpiros, P., Silvestre, M., Thieu, V., Barles, S., & Billen, G. (2011). Localising the Nitrogen Imprint of the Paris Food Supply: the Potential of Organic Farming and Changes in Human Diet : Volume 8, Issue 6 (10/11/2011). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: UMR Sisyphe, UPMC/CNRS, Paris, France. The Seine watershed has long been the food-supplying hinterland of Paris, providing most of the animal and vegetal protein consumed in the city. Nowadays, because of the land specialisation of agriculture made possible by the shift from manure-based to synthetic nitrogen fertilisation, the Seine watershed, although it exports 80% of its huge cereal production, still provides most of the cereal consumed by the Paris agglomeration. The meat and milk supply originate, however, mainly from regions in the North and West of France, specialised in animal farming and importing about 30% of their feed from South America. As it works today, this system is responsible for a severe nitrate contamination of surface groundwater resources. Herein two scenarios of re-localising Paris's food supply are explored, based on organic farming and local provision of animal feed. We show that for the Seine watershed it is technically possible to design an agricultural system able to provide all the plant- and animal-based food required by the population, to deliver sub-root water meeting the drinking water standards and still to export a significant proportion of its production to areas less suitable for cereal cultivation. Decreasing the share of animal products in the human diet has a strong impact on the nitrogen imprint of urban food supply.

Summary
Localising the nitrogen imprint of the Paris food supply: the potential of organic farming and changes in human diet

Excerpt
Abad, R.: Le Grand Marché: l'Approvisionnement de Paris sous l'Ancien Régime, Fayard, Paris, 2002.; Agreste: Ministry of Agriculture, available at: www.agreste.agriculture.gouv.fr/, last access: 8 November 2011, 2006; Ballingall, J. and Winchester, N.: Food miles: starving the poor?, University of Otago Economics Discussion Papers, No. 0812, available at: www.business.otago.ac.nz/econ/research/discussionpapers/DP_0812.pdf, last access: 8 November 2011, 2008.; Barles, S.: Écologie territoriale, in: Dictionnaire de l'Urbanisme et de l'Aménagement, 3rd edn., edited by: Merlin, P. and Choay, C., PUF, Paris, 843 pp., 2010.; Billen, G., Garnier, J., Nemery, J., Sebilo, M., Sferratore, A., Benoit, P., Barles, S., and Benoit, M.: A long term view of nutrient transfers through the Seine river continuum, Sci. Total Environ., 275, 80–97, 2007.; Billen, G., Barles, S., Garnier, J., Rouillard, J., and Benoit, P.: The food-print of Paris: long term reconstruction of the nitrogen flows imported to the city from its rural hinterland, Reg. Environ. Change, 9, 13–24, 2009.; Billen, G., Barles, S., Chatzimpiros, P., and Garnier, J.: Grain, meat and vegetables to feed Paris: where did and do they come from? Localising Paris food supply areas from the eighteenth to the twenty-first century. Reg. Environ. Changes, doi:10.1007/s10113-011-0244-7, in press, 2011.; Charruadas, P.: The cradle of the city: the environmental imprint of Brussels and its hinterland in the high middle ages, Reg. Environ. Changes, doi:10.1007/s10113-011-0212-2, in press, 2011; Cowell, S. J. and Parkinson, S.: Localisation of UK food production: an analysis using land area and energy as indicators, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 94, 221–236, 2003.; Desrochers, P. and Shimizu, H.: Yes We Have No Bananas: A Critique of the Food Mile Perspective, Mercatus Policy Series, Policy Primer No. 8, October 2008, available at: http://mercatus.org/publication/yes-we-have-no-bananas-critique-food-miles-perspective, 2008.; FAOstat: Statistics on production and international trade of food products, available at: http://faostat.fao.org/, last acess: 9 November 2011, 2010.; Galloway, J. N. and Cowling, E. B.: Reactive nitrogen and the world: 200 years of change, Ambio, 31, 64–71, 2002.; Heid, P.: Organic agriculture protects drinking water around Munich, Germany, Ecol. Farm., 14, 24–34, 1997.; Heyes, J. A. and Smith, A.: Could food miles become a non-tariff barrier?, SHS Acta Horticulturae, 768, 431–36, 2008.; Keene, D.: Medieval London and its supply hinterlands, Reg. Environ. Changes, doi:10.1007/s10113-011-0243-8, in press, 2011.; Lancelot, C., Thieu, V., Polard, A., Garnier, J., Billen, G., Hecq, W., and Gypens, N., Ecological and economic effectiveness of nutrient reduction policies on coastal Phaeocystis colony blooms in the Southern North Sea: an integrated modeling approach, Sci. Total Environ., 409, 2179–2191, 2011.; Ledoux, E., Gomez, E., Monget, J. M., Viavatenne, C., Viennot,&am

 

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