World Library  


Add to Book Shelf
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Book

The Ocean Carbon Sink – Impacts, Vulnerabilities and Challenges : Volume 6, Issue 1 (09/06/2015)

By Heinze, C.

Click here to view

Book Id: WPLBN0004007259
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 32
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: The Ocean Carbon Sink – Impacts, Vulnerabilities and Challenges : Volume 6, Issue 1 (09/06/2015)  
Author: Heinze, C.
Volume: Vol. 6, Issue 1
Language: English
Subject: Science, Earth, System
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2015
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Heinze, C., Chang, N., Quéré, C. L., Anderson, L., E. Bakke, D. C., Meyer, S.,...Goris, N. (2015). The Ocean Carbon Sink – Impacts, Vulnerabilities and Challenges : Volume 6, Issue 1 (09/06/2015). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is, next to water vapour, considered to be the most important natural greenhouse gas on Earth. Rapidly rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations caused by human actions such as fossil fuel burning, land-use change or cement production over the past 250 years have given cause for concern that changes in Earth's climate system may progress at a much faster pace and larger extent than during the past 20 000 years. Investigating global carbon cycle pathways and finding suitable adaptation and mitigation strategies has, therefore, become of major concern in many research fields. The oceans have a key role in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations and currently take up about 25% of annual anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Questions that yet need to be answered are what the carbon uptake kinetics of the oceans will be in the future and how the increase in oceanic carbon inventory will affect its ecosystems and their services. This requires comprehensive investigations, including high-quality ocean carbon measurements on different spatial and temporal scales, the management of data in sophisticated databases, the application of Earth system models to provide future projections for given emission scenarios as well as a global synthesis and outreach to policy makers. In this paper, the current understanding of the ocean as an important carbon sink is reviewed with respect to these topics. Emphasis is placed on the complex interplay of different physical, chemical and biological processes that yield both positive and negative air–sea flux values for natural and anthropogenic CO2 as well as on increased CO2 (uptake) as the regulating force of the radiative warming of the atmosphere and the gradual acidification of the oceans. Major future ocean carbon challenges in the fields of ocean observations, modelling and process research as well as the relevance of other biogeochemical cycles and greenhouse gases are discussed.

Summary
The ocean carbon sink – impacts, vulnerabilities and challenges

Excerpt
Takahashi, T., Sutherland, S. C., Wanninkhof, R., Sweeney, C., Feely, R. A., Chipman, D. W., Hales, B., Friederich, G., Chavez, F., Sabine, C., Watson, A., Bakker, D. C. E., Schuster, U., Metzl, N., Yoshikawa-Inoue, H., Ishii, M., Midorikawa, T., Nojiri, Y., Körtzinger, A., Steinhoff, T., Hoppema, M., Olafsson, J., Arnarson, T. S., Tilbrook, B., Johannessen, T., Olsen, A., Bellerby, R., Wong, C. S., Delille, B., Bates, N. R., and de Baar, H. J. W.: Climatological mean and decadal change in surface ocean pCO2, and net sea–air CO2 flux over the global oceans, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 56, 554–577, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.12.009, 2009.; Tans, P. P.: The CO2 lifetime concept should be banished: An editorial comment, Climatic Change, 37, 487–490, doi:10.1023/A:1005373006194, 1997.; Tans, P. P., Berry, J. A., and Keeling, R. F.: Oceanic 13C/12C observations: A new window on ocean CO2 uptake, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 7, 353–368, doi:10.1029/93GB00053, 1993.; Thomas, H., Friederike Prowe, A. E., Lima, I. D., Doney, S. C., Wanninkhof, R., Greatbatch, R. J., Schuster, U., and Corbière, A.: Changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation influence CO2 uptake in the North Atlantic over the past 2 decades, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 22, GB4027, doi:10.1029/2007GB003167, 2008.; Thomsen, J., Gutowska, M. A., Saphörster, J., Heinemann, A., Trübenbach, K., Fietzke, J., Hiebenthal, C., Eisenhauer, A., Körtzinger, A., Wahl, M., and Melzner, F.: Calcifying invertebrates succeed in a naturally CO2-rich coastal habitat but are threatened by high levels of future acidification, Biogeosciences, 7, 3879–3891, doi:10.5194/bg-7-3879-2010, 2010.; Thomsen, J., Casties, I., Pansch, C., Körtzinger, A., and Melzner, F.: Food availability outweighs ocean acidification effects in juvenile Mytilus edulis: laboratory and field experiments, Global Change Biol., 19, 1017–1027, doi:10.1111/gcb.12109, 2013.; Tjiputra, J. F., Assmann, K., and Heinze, C.: Anthropogenic carbon dynamics in the changing ocean, Ocean Sci., 6, 605–614, doi:10.5194/os-6-605-2010, 2010.; Tjiputra, J. F., Olsen, A., Assmann, K., Pfeil, B., and Heinze, C.: A model study of the seasonal and long–term North Atlantic surface pCO2 variability, Biogeosciences, 9, 907–923, doi:10.5194/bg-9-907-2012, 2012.; Tjiputra, J. F., Roelandt, C., Bentsen, M., Lawrence, D. M., Lorentzen, T., Schwinger, J., Seland, Ø., and Heinze, C.: Evaluation of the carbon cycle components in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM), Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 301–325, doi:10.5194/gmd-6-301-2013, 2013.; Tol, R. S. J.: Europe's long-term climate target: A critical evaluation, Energy Policy, 35, 424–432, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2005.12.003, 2007.; Tomizuka, A.: Estimation of the power of greenhouse gases on the basis of absorption spectra, Am. J. Phys., 78, 359–366, doi:10.1119/1.3280233, 2010.; Touratier, F. and Goyet, C.: Definition, properties, and Atlantic Ocean distribution of the new tracer TrOCA, J. Mar. Syst., 46, 169–179, doi

 

Click To View

Additional Books


  • Metrics for Linking Emissions of Gases a... (by )
  • Probabilistic Projection of Sea-level Ch... (by )
  • The Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Dat... (by )
  • Assessing the Internal Consistency of th... (by )
  • Comment on Carbon Farming in Hot, Dry Co... (by )
  • Climate Change Impact on Available Water... (by )
  • The Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters ... (by )
  • Framing Hydropower as Green Energy: Asse... (by )
  • A Global Historical Radiosondes and Trac... (by )
  • Data on Geochemical and Hydraulic Proper... (by )
  • Gender and Climate Change in the Indian ... (by )
  • Carina Oxygen Data in the Atlantic Ocean... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.