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About Uncertainties in Practical Salinity Calculations : Volume 6, Issue 3 (28/10/2009)

By Le Menn, M.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004021085
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 25
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: About Uncertainties in Practical Salinity Calculations : Volume 6, Issue 3 (28/10/2009)  
Author: Le Menn, M.
Volume: Vol. 6, Issue 3
Language: English
Subject: Science, Ocean, Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2009
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Menn, M. L. (2009). About Uncertainties in Practical Salinity Calculations : Volume 6, Issue 3 (28/10/2009). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: French Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM), CS 92803, 29228 Brest Cedex 2, France. Salinity is a quantity computed, in the actual state of the art, from conductivity ratio measurements, knowing temperature and pressure at the time of the measurement and using the Practical Salinity Scale algorithm of 1978 (PSS-78) which gives practical salinity values S. The uncertainty expected on PSS-78 values is ±0.002, but nothing has ever been detailed about the method to work out this uncertainty, and the sources of errors to include in this calculation. Following a guide edited by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), this paper assess, by two independent methods, the uncertainties of salinity values obtained from a laboratory salinometer and Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) measurements after laboratory calibration of a conductivity cell. The results show that the part due to the PSS-78 relations fits is sometimes as much significant as the instruments one's. This is particularly the case with CTD measurements where correlations between the variables contribute to decrease largely the uncertainty on S, even when the expanded uncertainties on conductivity cells calibrations are largely up of 0.002 mS/cm. The relations given in this publication, and obtained with the normalized GUM method, allow a real analysis of the uncertainties sources and they can be used in a more general way, with instruments having different specifications.

Summary
About uncertainties in practical salinity calculations

Excerpt
Fellmuth, B., Fisher, J., and Tegeler, E.: Uncertainty budgets for characteristics of SPRTs calibrated according to the ITS-90, BIPM, CCT/01–02, 2002.; Bacon, S., Culkin, F., Higgs, N., and Ridout, P.: IAPSO Standard Seawater: definition of the uncertainty in the calibration procedure and stability of recent batches, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 24, 1785–1799, 2007.; BIPM: Evaluation of measurement data – Supplement 1 to the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement – Propagation of distributions using a Monte Carlo method, Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology, YYY:2006, 60 pp., 2006.; BIPM: Evaluation of measurement data – Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement, JCGM 100:2008, GUM 1995 with minor corrections, 2008.; Culkin, F. and Ridout, P. S.: Stability of IAPSO Standard Seawater, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 15, 1072–1075, 1997.; Culkin, F. and Smith, N.: Determination of the concentration of potassium chloride solution having the same electrical conductivity, at 15{\degree}C and infinite frequency, as standard seawater of salinity 35000\permil, (Chlorinity 19.37394{%}), IEEE J. Ocean. Eng., 5(1), 22–23, 1980.; Fofonoff, N. P. and Millard, R. C.: Algorithms for computation of fundamental properties of seawater, Unesco Technical Paper in Marine Science, 44, 53 pp., 1983.; Jackett, D. R. and McDougall, T. J.: Algorithms for density, potential temperature, conservative temperature and the freezing temperature of seawater, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 23, 1709–1728, 2006.; Kawano, T., Aoyama, M., and Takatsuki, M.: Inconsistency in the conductivity of standard potassium chloride solutions made from different high-quality reagents, Deep-Sea Res. I, 52, 389–396, 2005.; Mensah, V., Le Menn, M., and Morel, Y.: Thermal mass correction for the evaluation of salinity, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 26(3), 665–672, 2009.; Perkin, R. G. and Lewis, E. L.: The practical salinity scale 1978: Fitting the data, IEEE J. Ocean. Eng., 5(1), 9–16, 1980.; Poisson, A.: Conductivity/Salinity/Temperature relationship of diluted and concentrated standard seawater, IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., 5(1), 41–50, 1980.; Saunders, P. M., Mahrt, K.-H., and Williams, R. T.: Standard and Laboratory Calibration, WHP Operations and Methods, World Hydrographic Programme Office, 11 pp., 1991.; Seitz, S., Spitzer, P., and Brown, R. J. C.: Consistency of practical salinity measurements traceable to primary conductivity standards: Euromet project 918, Accred. Qual. Assur., 13, 601–605, 2008.; Seitz, S. and Spitzer, P.: Establishment of SI traceability of Practical Salinity in Oceanographic Research, session 14, 14th Int. Congr. Metrol., Paris, June 2009.; Uschida, H., Kawano, T., and Fukasawa, M.: In situ calibration of moored CTDs used for monitoring abyssal water, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 25, 1695–1702, 2008.

 

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