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Iodp Expedition 339 in the Gulf of Cadiz and Off West Iberia: Decoding the Environmental Significance of the Mediterranean Outflow Water and Its Global Influence : Volume 16, Issue 16 (05/11/2013)

By Hernández-molina, F. J.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004021570
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Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Iodp Expedition 339 in the Gulf of Cadiz and Off West Iberia: Decoding the Environmental Significance of the Mediterranean Outflow Water and Its Global Influence : Volume 16, Issue 16 (05/11/2013)  
Author: Hernández-molina, F. J.
Volume: Vol. 16, Issue 16
Language: English
Subject: Science, Scientific, Drilling
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2013
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Iodp, E., Stow, D., Hernández-Molina, F. J., & Alvarez-Zarikian, C. (2013). Iodp Expedition 339 in the Gulf of Cadiz and Off West Iberia: Decoding the Environmental Significance of the Mediterranean Outflow Water and Its Global Influence : Volume 16, Issue 16 (05/11/2013). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, UK. IODP Expedition 339 drilled five sites in the Gulf of Cadiz and two off the west Iberian margin (November 2011 to January 2012), and recovered 5.5 km of sediment cores with an average recovery of 86.4%. The Gulf of Cadiz was targeted for drilling as a key location for the investigation of Mediterranean outflow water (MOW) through the Gibraltar Gateway and its influence on global circulation and climate. It is also a prime area for understanding the effects of tectonic activity on evolution of the Gibraltar Gateway and on margin sedimentation. We penetrated into the Miocene at two different sites and established a strong signal of MOW in the sedimentary record of the Gulf of Cadiz, following the opening of the Gibraltar Gateway. Preliminary results show the initiation of contourite deposition at 4.2–4.5 Ma, although subsequent research will establish whether this dates the onset of MOW. The Pliocene succession, penetrated at four sites, shows low bottom current activity linked with a weak MOW. Significant widespread unconformities, present in all sites but with hiatuses of variable duration, are interpreted as a signal of intensified MOW, coupled with flow confinement. The Quaternary succession shows a much more pronounced phase of contourite drift development, with two periods of MOW intensification separated by a widespread unconformity. Following this, the final phase of drift evolution established the contourite depositional system (CDS) architecture we see today. There is a significant climate control on this evolution of MOW and bottom-current activity. However, from the closure of the Atlantic–Mediterranean gateways in Spain and Morocco just over 6 Ma and the opening of the Gibraltar Gateway at 5.3 Ma, there has been an even stronger tectonic control on margin development, downslope sediment transport and contourite drift evolution. The Gulf of Cadiz is the world's premier contourite laboratory and thus presents an ideal testing ground for the contourite paradigm. Further study of these contourites will allow us to resolve outstanding issues related to depositional processes, drift budgets, and recognition of fossil contourites in the ancient record on shore. The expedition also verified an enormous quantity and extensive distribution of contourite sands that are clean and well sorted. These represent a relatively untapped and important exploration target for potential oil and gas reservoirs.

Summary
IODP Expedition 339 in the Gulf of Cadiz and off West Iberia: decoding the environmental significance of the Mediterranean outflow water and its global influence

Excerpt
Alves, T. M., Gawthorpe, R. L., Hunt, D. W., and Monteiro, J. H.: Cenozoic tectono-sedimentary evolution of the western Iberian margin, Mar. Geol., 195, 75–108, doi:10.1016/S0025-3227(02)00683-7, 2003.; Bigg, G. R. and Wadley, M. R.: Millenial-scale variability in the oceans: an ocean modelling view, J. Quaternary Sci., 16, 309–319, doi:10.1002/jqs.599, 2001a.; Bigg, G. R. and Wadley, M. R.: The origin and flux of icebergs released into the Last Glacial Maximum Northern Hemisphere oceans: the impact of ice-sheet topography, J. Quaternary Sci., 16, 565–573, doi:10.1002/jqs.628, 2001b.; Bigg, G. R., Jickells, T. D., Liss, P. S., and Osborn, T. J.: The role of the oceans in climate, Int. J. Climatol.,, 23, 1127–1159, doi:10.1002/joc.926, 2003.; Brackenridge, R. A., Hernández-Molina, F. J., Stow, D. A. V., and Llave, R.: A Pliocene mixed contourite-turbidite system offshore the Algarve Margin, Gulf of Cadiz: Seismic response, margin evolution and reservoir implications, Mar. Petrol. Geol., 46, 36–50, doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2013.05.015, 2013.; Buitrago, J., García, C., Cajebread-Brow, J., Jiménez, A., and Martínez del Olmo, W.: Contouritas: Un Excelente Almacén Casi Desconocido (Golfo de Cádiz, SO de España) [Congreso Técnico Exploración y Producción REPSOL-YPF, Madrid, 24–27 September 2001], 2001.; Duarte, J. C., Rosas, F. M., Terrinha, P., Gutscher, M.-A., Malavieille, J., Silva, S., and Matias, L.: Thrust–wrench interference tectonics in the Gulf of Cadiz (Africa–Iberia plate boundary in the North-East Atlantic): Insights from analog models, Mar. Geol., 289, 135–149, 2011.; Duarte, J. C., Rosas, F. M., Terrinha, P., Schellart, W. P., Boutelier, D., Gutscher, M. A., and Ribeiro, M. A.: Are subduction zones invading the Atlantic? Evidence from the southwest Iberia margin, Geology, doi:10.1130/G34100.1, in press, 2013.; Einsele, G.: Sedimentary Basins. Evolution, Facies, and Sediment Budget, 2nd Edn., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 792 pp., 2000.; Expedition 339 Scientists: Mediterranean outflow: environmental significance of the Mediterranean Outflow Water and its global implications, IODP Prel. Rept.,, 339, doi:10.2204/iodp.pr.339.2012, 2012.; Faugères, J.-C., Frappa, M., Gonthier, E., de Resseguier, A., and Stow, D.: Modelé et facies de type contourite à la surface d'une ride sédimentaire édifiée par des courants issus de la veine d'eau méditerranéenne (ride du Faro, Golfe de Cadix), Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr., 1, 35–47, 1985.; Gonthier, E. G., Faugeres, J. C., and Stow, D. A. V.: Contourite facies of the Faro Drift, Gulf of Cádiz, in: Fine-Grained Sediments: Deep Water Processes and Facies, edited by: Stow, D. A. V. and Piper, D. J. W., Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ., 15, 275–292, doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.1984.015.01.18, 1984.; Gutscher, M.-A., Malod, J., Rehault, J.-P., Contrucci, I., Klingelhoefer, F., Mendes-Victor, L., and Spakman, W.: Evidence for active subduction beneath Gibraltar, Geology, 30, 1071–1074, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<1071:EFASBG>2.0.CO;2, 2002.; Habgood, E. L., Kenyon, N. H., Masson, D. G., Akhmetzhanov, A., Weaver, P. P. E., Gardner, J., and Mulder, T.: Deep-water sediment wave fields, bottom current sand channels, and gravity flow channel-lobe systems: Gulf of Cádiz, NE Atlantic, Sedimentology, 50, 483–510, doi:10.1046/j.1365-3091.2003.00561.x

 

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