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Air Temperature Thresholds to Evaluate Snow Melting at the Surface of Alpine Glaciers by T-index Models: the Case Study of Forni Glacier (Italy) : Volume 8, Issue 2 (18/03/2014)

By Senese, A.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004022994
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 25
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Air Temperature Thresholds to Evaluate Snow Melting at the Surface of Alpine Glaciers by T-index Models: the Case Study of Forni Glacier (Italy) : Volume 8, Issue 2 (18/03/2014)  
Author: Senese, A.
Volume: Vol. 8, Issue 2
Language: English
Subject: Science, Cryosphere, Discussions
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2014
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Vuillermoz, E., Smiraglia, C., Senese, A., Maugeri, M., & Diolaiuti, G. (2014). Air Temperature Thresholds to Evaluate Snow Melting at the Surface of Alpine Glaciers by T-index Models: the Case Study of Forni Glacier (Italy) : Volume 8, Issue 2 (18/03/2014). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: University of Milan – A. Desio Department of Earth Sciences, via Mangiagalli 34, 20131, Milan, Italy. The glacier melt conditions (i.e.: null surface temperature and positive energy budget) can be assessed by analyzing meteorological and energy data acquired by a supraglacial Automatic Weather Station (AWS). In the case this latter is not present the assessment of actual melting conditions and the evaluation of the melt amount is difficult and simple methods based on T-index (or degree days) models are generally applied. These models require the choice of a correct temperature threshold. In fact, melt does not necessarily occur at daily air temperatures higher than 273.15 K.

In this paper, to detect the most indicative threshold witnessing melt conditions in the April–June period, we have analyzed air temperature data recorded from 2006 to 2012 by a supraglacial AWS set up at 2631 m a.s.l. on the ablation tongue of the Forni Glacier (Italian Alps), and by a weather station located outside the studied glacier (at Bormio, a village at 1225 m a.s.l.). Moreover we have evaluated the glacier energy budget and the Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) values during this time-frame. Then the snow ablation amount was estimated both from the surface energy balance (from supraglacial AWS data) and from T-index method (from Bormio data, applying the mean tropospheric lapse rate and varying the air temperature threshold) and the results were compared. We found that the mean tropospheric lapse rate permits a good and reliable reconstruction of glacier air temperatures and the major uncertainty in the computation of snow melt is driven by the choice of an appropriate temperature threshold. From our study using a 5.0 K lower threshold value (with respect to the largely applied 273.15 K) permits the most reliable reconstruction of glacier melt.


Summary
Air temperature thresholds to evaluate snow melting at the surface of Alpine glaciers by T-index models: the case study of Forni Glacier (Italy)

Excerpt
AINEVA: available at: http://www.aineva.it (last access: 6 March 2014), 2003.; ARPA Lombardia: available at: http://www2.arpalombardia.it/siti/arpalombardia/meteo/richiesta-dati-misurati/Pagine/RichiestaDatiMisurati.aspx (last access: 6 March 2014).; Bocchiola, D., Mihalcea, C., Diolaiuti, G., Mosconi, B., Smiraglia, C., and Rosso, R.: Flow prediction in high altitude ungauged catchments: a case study in the Italian Alps (Pantano Basin, Adamello Group), Adv. Water Resour., 33, 1224–1234, 2010.; Braithwaite, R. J.: Calculation of degree-days for glacier – climate research, Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie, 20, 1–8, 1985.; Braithwaite, R. J.: Temperature and precipitation climate at the equilibrium-line altitude of glaciers expressed by the degree-day factor for melting snow, J. Glaciol., 54, 437–444, 2008.; Braithwaite, R. J.: Degree-days, in: Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers, edited by: Singh, V. P., Singh, P., and Haritashya, U. K., Dordrecht, Springer, the Netherlands, 2011.; Cazorzi, F. and Dalla Fontana, G.: Snowmelt modelling by combining air temperature and a distributed radiation index, J. Hydrol., 181, 169–187, 1996.; Citterio, M., Diolaiuti, G., Smiraglia, C., Verza, G., and Meraldi, E.: Initial results from the automatic weather station (AWS) on the ablation tongue of Forni Glacier (Upper Valtellina, Italy), Geogr. Fis. Din. Quat., 30, 141–151, 2007.; Clyde, G. D.: Snow-melting characteristics, Utah AES Res. Bull., 231, 1–23, 1931.; De Quervain, M.: Schneedeckenablation und Gradtage im Versuchsfeld Weissfluhjoch, Mitteilung VAW/ETH Zurich, Zurich, 41, 215–232, 1979.; Diolaiuti, G. and Smiraglia, C.: Changing glaciers in a changing climate: how vanishing geomorphosites have been driving deep changes in mountain landscapes and environments, Geomorphologie, 2, 131–152, 2010.; Diolaiuti, G., Bocchiola, D., D'Agata, C., and Smiraglia, C.: Evidence of climate change impact upon glaciers' recession within the Italian Alps: the case of Lombardy glaciers, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 109, 429–445 doi:10.1007/s00704-012-0589-y, 2012.; Hock, R.: A distributed temperature-index ice- and snowmelt model including potential direct solar radiation, J. Glaciol., 45, 101–111, 1999.; Hock, R.: Temperature index melt modelling in mountain areas, J. Hydrol., 282, 104–115, 2003.; Hock, R.: Glacier melt: a review of processes and their modeling, Prog. Phys. Geog., 29, 362–391, 2005.; Kayastha, R. B., Ageta, Y., and Nakawo, M.: Positive degree-day factors for ablation on glaciers in the Nepalese Himalayas: case study on glacier AX010 in Shoron Himal, Nepal, Bull. Glaciol. Res., 17, 1–10, 2000.; Kuhn, M.: Micro-meteorological conditions for snow melt, J. Glaciol., 33, 263–272, 1987.; Pellicciotti, F., Brock, B. W., Strasser, U., Burlando, P., Funk, M., and Corripio, J. G.: An enhanced temperature-index glacier melt model including shortwave radiation balance: development and testing for Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland, J. Glaciol., 51, 573–587, 2005.; Senese, A., Diolaiuti, G., Mihalcea, C., and Smiraglia, C.: Energy and mass balance of Forni Glacier (Stelvio National Park, Italian Alps) from a 4-year meteorological data record, Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res., 44, 122–134, 2012a.; Senese, A., Diolaiuti, G., Verza, G. P., and Smiraglia, C.: Surface energy budget and melt amount for the years 2009 and 2010 at the Forni Glacier (Italian Alps, Lombardy), Geogr. Fis. Din. Quat., 35, 69–77, 2012b.; SHARE: available at: http://www.evk2cnr.org/cms/en/share/monitoring-stations (last access: 6 March 2014).; Van de Wal, R.: Ice and Climate, Ph.D. thesis, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 144 pp., 1992

 

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