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First Sentinel-1 Detections of Avalanche Debris : Volume 9, Issue 2 (24/03/2015)

By Malnes, E.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004023182
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 21
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: First Sentinel-1 Detections of Avalanche Debris : Volume 9, Issue 2 (24/03/2015)  
Author: Malnes, E.
Volume: Vol. 9, Issue 2
Language: English
Subject: Science, Cryosphere, Discussions
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2015
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

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Vickers, H., Malnes, E., & Eckerstorfer, M. (2015). First Sentinel-1 Detections of Avalanche Debris : Volume 9, Issue 2 (24/03/2015). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Norut (Northern Research Institute), Dept. Earth Observation, Tromsø Science Park, 9294, Tromsø, Norway. Snow avalanches are natural hazards, occurring in snow covered mountain terrain worldwide. Present avalanche research and forecasting relies on complete avalanche activity records in a given area over an entire winter season, which cannot be provided with traditional, mainly field based methods. Remote sensing, using weather, and light independent SAR satellites has the potential of filling these data gaps, however, to date their use was limited by high acquisition costs, long repeat cycles, and small ground swath. Sentinel-1A (S1A), on the other hand, operational since October 2014 provides free-of-charge, 20 m spatial resolution, 250 km × 150 km ground swath images every 12 days. In this paper, we present for the first time, that it is possible to detect avalanche debris using S1A images. We successfully apply a change detection method that enhances avalanche debris zones, by comparing repeat pass images before and after the avalanche occurred. Due to the increase in backscatter from avalanche debris, manual detection is possible. With this first proof-of-concept, we show the detection of 489 avalanche debris zones in a S1A image from 6 January 2015, covering the counties Troms and parts of Nordland in Northern Norway. We validate our avalanche detection using very high resolution Radarsat-2 Ultrafine images, as well as extensive field reconnaissance. Our results give us confidence, that S1A detection of avalanches is a critical step towards operational use of SAR avalanche detection in avalanche forecasting.

Summary
First Sentinel-1 detections of avalanche debris

Excerpt
Malnes, E., Eckerstorfer, M., Larsen, Y., Frauenfelder, R., Jonsson, A., Jaedicke, C., and Solbø, S. A.: Remote sensing of avalanches in northern Norway using Synthetic Aperture Radar, in: Proceedings of the International Snow Science Workshop 2013, Grenoble – Chamonix, Mont Blanc, France, 9–13 October, 955–959, 2013.; Margreth, S., Stoffel, L., and Wilhelm, C.: Winter opening of high alpine pass roads – analysis and case studies from the Swiss Alps, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 37, 467–482, 2003.; Marty, C. and Meister, R.: Long-term snow and weather observations at Weissfluhjoch and its relation to other high-altitude observatories in the Alps, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 110, 573–583, doi:10.1007/s00704-012-0584-3 2012. 2012.; Nagler, T. and Rott, H.: Retrieval of wet snow by means of multitemporal SAR data, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 38, 754–765, 2000.; Schweizer, J.: Snow avalanche formation and dynamics, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 54, 153–154, 2008.; Ulaby, F. T., Moore, R. K., and Fung, A. K.: Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and Passive; From Theory to Applications, Artech House, Norwood, 1986.; Bühler, Y., Bieler, C., Pielmeier, C., Frauenfelder, R., Jaedicke, C., Bippus, G., Wiesmann, A., and Caduff, R.: Improved Alpine Avalanche Forecast Service, Final Report, WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, Davos, Switzerland, 22 pp., 2014.; Buser, O.: Avalanche forecast with the method of nearest neighbours: an interactive approach, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 8, 155–163, 1983.; Eckerstorfer, M. and Christiansen, H. H.: Relating meteorological variables to the natural slab avalanche regime in High Arctic Svalbard, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 69, 184–193, 2011.; Eckerstorfer, M. and Malnes, E.: Multi-sensor and multi-temporal avalanche debris detection using SAR and optiacl remote sensing data, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 19, submitted, 2014.; Eckerstorfer, M., Malnes, E., Frauenfelder, R., Domaas, U., and Brattlien, K.: Avalanche debris detection using satellite-borne radar and optical remote sensing, in: Proceedings of the International Snow Science Workshop 2014, Banff, Canada, 29 September–3 October, 122–128, 2014.; Eckert, N., Coleou, C., Castebrunet, H., Dechatres, M., Giraud, G., and Gaume, J.: Cross-comparison of meteorological and avalanche data for characterising avalanche cycles: the example of December 2008 in the eastern part of the French Alps, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 64, doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2010.08.009, 2010.; Fitzharris, B. B. and Schaerer, P.: Frequency of major avalanche winters, J. Glaciol., 26, 43–48, 1980.; Wiesmann, A., Wegmueller, U., Honikel, M., Strozzi, T., and Werner, C. L.: Potential and Methodology of Satellite Based SAR for Hazard Mapping, IGARSS 2001, Sydney, Australia, 9–13 July 2001.; Föhn, P., Good, W., Bois, P., and Obled, C.: Evaluation and comparison of statistical and conventional methods of forecasting avalanche hazars, J. Glaciol., 19, 375–387, 1977.; Hendrikx, J. and Owens, I.: Modified avalanche risk equations to account for waiting traffic on avalanche prone roads, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 51, 214–218, 2008.; Hendrikx, J., Murphy, M., and Onslow, T.: Classification trees as a tool for operational avalanche forecasting on the Seward Highway, Alaska, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 97, 113–120, 2014.; Larsen, Y., Engen, G., Lauknes, T. R., Malnes, E., and Høgda, K. A.: A generic differential interferometric SAR processing system, with applications to land subsidence and snow-water equivalent retrieval, Fringe ATSR Workshop 2005, Frascati, Italy, 28 November–2 December, 6, 2005.; Malnes, E., Storvold, R., Lauknes, I., Solbø, S. A., Solberg, R., Amlien, J., and Koren, H.: Multi-sensor monitoring of snow parameters in Nordic mountainous areas, in: Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS 05), Seoul, South Korea, 25–29 July 2005, 1951–1954, 2005.

 

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