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Opinion Paper: Forest Management and Biodiversity : Volume 14, Issue 1 (07/03/2014)

By Schulze, E. D.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004023323
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 8
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Opinion Paper: Forest Management and Biodiversity : Volume 14, Issue 1 (07/03/2014)  
Author: Schulze, E. D.
Volume: Vol. 14, Issue 1
Language: English
Subject: Science, Ecology
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2014
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Schulze, E. D., Walentowski, H., Bouriaud, O., Bouriaud, L., Hessenmöller, D., Gadow, K. V.,...Gossner, M. (2014). Opinion Paper: Forest Management and Biodiversity : Volume 14, Issue 1 (07/03/2014). Retrieved from http://www.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, P.O. Box 100164, 07701 Jena, Germany. In this opinion paper we investigate the effects of forest management on animal and plant biodiversity by comparing protected areas with intensively and extensively managed forests in Germany and in Romania. We want to know the extent to which differences in diversity of Romanian compared to German forests are based on management.

The number of tree species was not different in protected and managed forests ranging between 1.8 and 2.6 species per plot in Germany and 1.3 and 4.0 in Romania. Also herbaceous species were independent of management, ranging between 13 species per plot in protected forests of Romania and 38 species per plot in German coniferous forest. Coarse woody debris was generally low, also in protected forests (14 to 39 m3 ha−1). The main difference between Romania and Germany was the volume of standing dead trees (9 to 28 m3 ha−1 for Romania), which resulted in larger numbers of forest relict saproxylic beetles independent of management. Large predators (wolves, bears and lynxes) are only found in regions with low human intervention. Thus, we identified a cut and leave type of management in Romania, in which clear-felling of forest are followed by long periods of no human intervention. Forests managed in the cut and leave mode contained the highest diversity, due to a natural succession of plant species and due to habitat continuity for animals. In Germany intensive management eliminates poorly formed tree individual and species of low market value during stand development. Forest protection does not ensure the maintenance of more light demanding key species of earlier stages of succession unless competition by shade-tolerant competitors is reduced through disturbances.

We compare the economics of intensive and extensive management. The cut and leave mode delivers less wood to the wood market, but saves expenses of tending, thinning and administration. Thus the net income could be quite similar to intensive management at a higher level of biodiversity.

Our analysis suggests that forest protection per se does not yet ensure the maintenance of species. Clear-felling followed by natural succession may even be superior to the protection of old growth forests, regarding biodiversity. Further research is needed to substantiate this hypothesis.


Summary
Opinion Paper: Forest management and biodiversity

Excerpt
Gossner, M. M., Lachat, T., Brunet, J., Isacsson, G., Bouget, C., Brustel, H., Brandl, R., Weisser W. W., and Müller, J.: Current near-to-nature forest management effects on functional trait composition of saproxylic beetles in beech forests, Conserv. Biol., 27, 605–614, 2013.; Greenpeace, Forest Cover changes in Romania in 2000–2011, http://www.greenpeace.org/romania/global/romania/paduri/despaduririle20Romania/forestcover20in%20Romania; Hacker, H.: Schmetterlinge und Sträucher, in: Sträucher in Wald und Flur, edited by: Bayerischer Forstverein, Ecomed, Landsberg, 510–520, 1998.; Hobbie, S. E., Jensen, D. B., and Chapin III, E. S.: Resource supply and disturbance as control over present and future plant diversity, Ecological Studies, 99, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 385–408, 1994.; Küster, H.: Geschichte des Waldes. Von der Urzeit bis zur Gegenwart, 2. Auflage, Beck Verlag, Munich, Germany, 267 pp., 2008.; Lüpke, N. v., Hardtke, A., Lück, M., Hessenmöller, D., Ammer, C., and Schulze, E. D.: Bestandesvorrat, Baumartenvielfalt und Strukturkleinparzellierter Privatwälder im Hainich, Forstarchiv, 82, 203–215, 2011.; Meyer, P. and Schmidt, M.: Accumulation of dead wood in abandoned beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in northwestern Germany, Forest Ecol. Manag., 261, 342–352, 2011.; Müller, J., Bussler, H., and Dorka, V.: Karpatenwälder als Bezugsflächen für mitteleuropäische Urwälder, AFZ–Der Wald, 9, 482–484, 2005.; Popescu, G., Patrascoiu, N., and Grigorescu, V.: Padurea Si Omul, Editura Nord Carta, Suceava, Romania, 602 pp., 2004.; Müller, J., Engel, H., and Blaschke, M.: Assemblages of wood-inhabiting fungi related to silvicultural management intensity in beech forests in southern Germany, Eur. J. For. Res., 126, 513–527, 2007.; Müller, J., Jarzabek-Müller, A., Bussler, H., and Gossner, M. M.: Hollow beech trees identified as keystone structures for saproxylic beetles by analyses of functional and phylogenetic diversity, Anim. Conserv., doi:10.1111/acv12075, 2013.; Paillet, Y., Bergès, L., Hjältén, J., Odor, P., Avon, C., Bernhardt-Römermann, M., Bijlsma, R. J., de Bruyn, L., Fuhr, M., Grandin, U., Kanka, R., Lundin, L., Luque, S., Magura, T., Matesanz, S., Mészáros, I., Sebastià, M. T., Schmidt, W., Standovár, T., Tóthmérész, B., Uotila, A., Valladares, F., Vellak, K., and Virtanen, R.: Biodiversity Differences between Managed and Unmanaged Forests: Meta-Analysis of Species Richness in Europe, Conserv. Biol., 24, 101–112, 2009.; Pukkala, T.: Integrating multiple services in the numerical analysis of landscape design, in: Designing Landscapes, edited by: Gadow, K. and Pukkala, T., Springer Verlag, 137–168, 2008.; Pukkala, T. and Gadow, K. v. (Eds.): Continuous Cover Forestry, Book Series Managing Forest Ecosystems, 24, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 324 pp., 2012.; Aravind, N. A., Manjunath, J., Rao, D., Ganeshaiah, K. N., Shaanker, R. U., and Vanaraj, G.: Are red-listed species threatened? A comparative analysis of red-listed and non-red-listed plant species in the Western Ghats, India, Curr. Sci. India, 88, 258–265, 2005.; Boch, S., Prati, D., Müller, J., Socher, S., Baumbach, H., Buscot, F., Gockel, S., Hemp, A., Hessenmöller, D., Kalko, E. K. V., Linsenmair, E., Pfeiffer, S., Pommer, U., Schöning, I., Schulze, E. D., Seilwinder, C., Weisser, W. W., Wells, K., and Fischer, M.: High plant species richness indicates management-related disturbances rather than conservation status of forests, Basic Appl. Ecol., 14, 496–404, doi:10.1016/j.baae.201306001, 2013.; Bosch, J. and Gadow, K. v.: Regulating Afforestation for Water Conservation in South Africa, South African Forest Journal, 153, 41–54, 1990.; Brändle, M. and Brandl, R.: Species richness of insects


 

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